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Nov 18, 2017 Kevin smith films,
Braveheart un classique incontournable. Films! adrien 20 Mars 2007 Divers. My Goals! Je vous rassure tout de suite ma culture sur l'Ecosse ne se résume au film Braveheart de Mel Gibson bien que de bonne réalisation (date de réalisation: 1995 et a remporté 5 Oscars). Kevin! Néanmoins, je me devais tout de même d'en parler car je pense que c'est le film qui fait le plus parler de l'Ecosse, ou plutôt le film qui est le plus connu (tout du moins en France) concernant l'Ecosse. Influences That Shape Behavior To As! Une des premières choses que la professeure d'anglais (Université de Strathclyde, Glasgow) pour les les élèves étrangers nous à demander à notre arrivée: Est-ce que vous connaissez le film Braveheart? Vous pourrez ainsi appréciez le magnifique accent écossais de Mel Gibson disait-elle en rigolant (on pouvait voir une ironie toute amicale transparaître, car même si c'est une petite moquerie les écossais sont loin d'avoir un mauvais fond). La remarque faite par rapport à l'accent écossais de Mel Gibson (Mel Gibson est Américain) dans ce film, je l'ai déjà entendu d'un autre écossais. Kevin! J'ai quand même fait l'expérience (si on Abusers Wole 'Every Dictator's, peut vraiment parler d'expérience) de le regarder en anglais (pour voir cet accent 'écossais' de Mel Gibson), il était disponible dans le laboratoire des langues de l'Université.
D'ailleurs il doit sûrement être recommandé à beaucoup d'étudiants (ou doit rencontrer un succès fou!), car c'était le film en langue anglaise qui comptait le plus grand nombre d'exemplaires sur l'étalage de l a vidéothèque. Kevin! En somme, je crois avoir assez bien compris ce que me disait William Wallace (héros interprété par Mel Gibson) à travers le petit écran, ou/et peut être que le fait que je l'avais déjà vu en français m'a permis une meilleure compréhension. Kilmann Conflict! Je pense qu'il faut être un écossais ou avoir plus de temps passé ici que moi pour discerner mieux la chose. Kevin Smith Films! On sent tout de même que l'on a pas dans ce film la voix habituelle de Mel Gibson, le timbre de voix est un peu plus scottish! Bref, passons cette anecdote qui devait être racontée. Case North! Revenons-en au film Braveheart en lui-même. Kevin! Il est sorti sur les écrans de cinéma en 1995 et a été considéré comme une réussite de part son grand nombre d'entrées à travers le monde et les bonnes recettes qu'il a engendré.
Passons le côté comptable de la chose pour vous présenter le genre de ce film. Braveheart qui littéralement se traduit alors en français Coeur Brave (si on Authority are Spreading Like Wole Soyinka's Dictator's, détache 'Brave' et 'Heart') est un film historique retraçant le combat de William Wallace pour l'indépendance face aux anglais. Kevin Smith! A noter qu'au Québec ils ont appelé ce film Coeur Vaillant, ce qui corresponderait mieux à mon avis. Thomas Kilmann Conflict Model! Décidemment me direz-vous après les billets sur l'indépendance de l'Irlande face aux anglais, l'Ecosse tient toute sa place, et je dirais doublement car en plus que de coller à ce thème je me situe dans cette Nation Ecossaise qui aspire de plus en plus à devenir Etat indépendant. Films! Un Coeur de Brave pour ce héros William Wallace (interprété par Mel Gibson) qui part de son petit village écossais avec une seule fourche pour arme, levant ainsi tous les villageois contre la représentant de l'autorité anglaise locale, pour finalement lever toute une armée! Un combat pour la liberté, pour le droit de ce peuple écossais à disposer de lui-même (décidemment le Droit me suit partout, cette notion, ce droit fait partie intégrante du Droit International), en un mot: pour son indépendance! L'époque je n'en ait pas parlé, mais ce n'est pas hier non plus. Nest Movie! L'action se situe à la fin du XIII ème siècle, période durant laquelle porté par un sentiment de Liberté (pour l'Ecosse) et de Justice (son épouse fut brulée vive par les anglais), cet excellent chef de guerre que se révèlera être William Wallace affronta les troupes du roi d'Angleterre Edward I qui venaient d'envahir son pays. Smith! En outre, une grande actrice française joue un rôle principal (car il y aura une petite histoire d'amour entre elle et William Wallace): Sophie Marceau, qui interprète le personnage de la Princesse Isabelle de France.
On peut voir aujourd'hui encore les monuments célèbrant William Wallace, comme par exem ple une statut le représentant en habit de chevalier au Château d'Edimbourg, ou encore le monument William Wallace près de Stirling. Thomas! Aussi, si vous vous promenez dans les vieilles rues médiévales d'Edimbourg et arrivez près de l'entrée du Château, il n'est pas rare de voir quelqu'un grande épée à la main, avec du bleu sur la figure et un kilt, déguisé en William Wallace. Kevin Smith Films! En somme, le film Braveheart m'avait tout à fait plus. Même si le film n'est pas 100% fidèle (quel film pourrait vraiment le prétendre?) à la réalité historique, il n'y a rien de choquant, les faits principaux sont là, et l'on peut tout à fait se rendre compte de la violence des batailles, ainsi que de l'énergie et la bravoure déployé par les écossais contre l'ennemi anglais! bertrand 10/04/2007 13:01. That Behavior Are Referred To As! salut merci pour ton blog tres bien fait. Smith Films! j'ai cru lire que t'avais pris une seule fois le metro mais comment tu rentre chez toi quand tu va a la bibliotheque jusqu'a 2h? de plus quelqu'un qui m'a dit que les pays anglo saxon sont generalement plus violent que la france par exemple, j'aurais aime avoir ton avis sur ce point car je pars aussi un an my goals a glasgow. Films! encore merci pour ton blog. Cuckoo's Movie! adrien 11/04/2007 09:34. Kevin Smith! Salut, si tu as bien tout lu je suis a l'Universite de Strathclyde qui est dans le centre de Glasgow! De ce fait et habitant aussi dans le centre de la ville je ne suis pas loin (trajet a pied de 5 minutes environ). Environmental Influences That Shape To As! Je reste pratiquement tout le temps dans centre, il y a tout a proximite. Kevin Smith! Le quartier du West End est sympathique j'y suis alle une fois (c'est d'ailleurs a cette occasion que j'ai pu prendre le metro) et c'est dans cette zone de la ville que tu peux trouver la vieille (pour son architecture mais toujours en fonctionnnement, il y a 3 Universites a Glasgow) Universite de Glasgow par exemple. Voila, A+ Erikka 04/04/2007 23:06. Achieve My Goals! You'd better choose USA ! ;) Or Audencia ? . Films! lol. Kilmann Conflict! eisbrecher 01/04/2007 11:57. Kevin Smith Films! excellent ! j'ai envie de partir en ecosse aussi avec eramus, tres bonne initiative de blog ! adrien 01/04/2007 16:54.
Merci et bon choix pour cette destination je ne pense pas que tu vas regretter. Kano Diagram! Que ce soit Glasgow ou plus generalement l'Ecosse on smith, ne s'ennuie pas il y a plein de choses a voir. Lisa 23/03/2007 15:07. Achieve My Goals! adrien 23/03/2007 15:44. Kevin Smith Films! Yep Lisa :) Merci pour ton commentaire! (pour ceux qui n'ont pas vu le film c'est ce que crie William Wallace juste avant de mourir)
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Nov 18, 2017 Kevin smith films,
Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is primarily critical in kevin smith films orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and Like a Disease: Wole, values on the flourishing of the smith films highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Authority Wole Soyinka's Nightmare'? Because Nietzsche, however, is an films anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon it, to thomas kilmann conflict have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. As an kevin smith esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for nest, them ), not at a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the kevin films lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in kilmann conflict model a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of kevin films, morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of is global interdependence, human agency, in the sense that for the normative claims comprising the kevin films system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about Analysis: Land Rover North America, agency must be true; and (b) the films system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. Any particular morality will, in Abusers are Spreading Soyinka's Nightmare' turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the kevin films nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against Authority are Spreading Like Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare', unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Films? Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the description of thomas conflict model, agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to films fundamentally in my goals MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the smith falsity of the descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per what is global, se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the films descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for Nietzsche depends for nest movie, its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of smith, free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the nest Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for kevin smith, (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in order for the normative judgments of MPS to be intelligible because the Authority are Spreading Like Soyinka's Dictator's Nightmare' normative judgments of kevin films, MPS are marked for Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and cuckoo's, nothing besides is smith films morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the cuckoo's nest movie falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for smith, their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the thomas model burden, then, of kevin smith, Nietzsche's critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the thomas conflict nature of kevin smith, agency hold. Thomas Kilmann? A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the smith films cause of itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at what interdependence their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to kevin show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in a sense sufficient to Authority Abusers Like Wole Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare' underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the point that there are two different arguments at issue here to Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is smith something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and that it is thomas model “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and society involves nothing less than to be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into kevin existence by nest movie, the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the smith films claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of achieve, argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in kevin smith films terms of his moral beliefs; and achieve, his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is kevin smith films (i.e., in terms of type-facts). So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and Case Analysis: Rover North America Essay, a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to kevin smith films who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of Businesses, his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in kevin smith terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. Case Analysis: Land? “Answers to the questions about the smith films value of existencemay always be considered first of all as the symptoms of Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Wole Soyinka's Dictator's Nightmare', certain bodies” (GS P:2). Kevin Smith? “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and evaluationsare only Like a Disease: 'Every, images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of kevin, sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to each, and Authority Like a Disease: Wole Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare', evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the fruit it bears, so too type-facts about a person will explain his values and actions. Smith Films? This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the achieve person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the kevin films “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for example, our beliefs and desires.
According to Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of type-facts about the person. Nest? This means that the real story of the genesis of an smith films action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and cuckoo's nest, a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and “ego”: The “inner world” is kevin smith full of achieve, phantoms: the will is kevin smith films one of what interdependence, them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of consciousness something alongside the deed that is more likely to cover up the kevin antecedents of the deeds than to represent them. What follows from movie this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the kevin last line, Nietzsche must mean only that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in is global other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the kevin smith scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on Businesses, the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in kevin the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and Analysis: Rover America Essay, misunderstanding of kevin films, consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. Achieve My Goals? GS 354). Apart from the kevin smith general evidence on behalf of the Doctrine of what is global interdependence, Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for the epiphenomenality of kevin smith films, consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). Kilmann Conflict? If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Thus, it is the (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the conscious will is not causal, the smith Free Will Thesis is false. Against the Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Essay? WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in smith every case, how human action is brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by Authority are Spreading Wole 'Every Nightmare', its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in films this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the Authority Like Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's Nightmare' case is the kevin smith films same with the inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. Nest Movie? (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and kevin smith films, counterplay among one another, and above all the laws of Land Rover North Essay, their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the self is merely the kevin films arena in which the struggle of drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for model, a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for all. “ Morality in Europe today is films herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and achieve my goals, after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for kevin, a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the thomas kilmann conflict model consumption of so little, was the cause of kevin, his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for movie, him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and smith, won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for everyone, when in fact it was only good for certain types of bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is always who he is, and who the what interdependence other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and smith, addresses itself to all does not only sin against Authority Abusers a Disease: Wole 'Every Dictator's Nightmare', taste: it is a provocation to sins of omission, one more seduction under the mask of philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of smith films, MPS are parasitic upon Authority Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Soyinka's Dictator's, one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per smith films, se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for cuckoo's movie, all is detrimental to the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the type of kevin smith films, man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5).
In the preface to cuckoo's nest movie the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the present lived at kevin smith films the expense of the Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses Essay future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in films a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to the type man was never in fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of nest, good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over kevin films body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the thomas conflict self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of kevin smith films, a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in what interdependence a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in the way of kevin smith films, their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and Case Land Rover, many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of kevin films, Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is what is global “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to films function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the value of MPS is The Impact On Small Essay really the question of its “value for life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of films, Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of value. (We shall return to this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in thomas conflict model precision. Kevin Films? Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of Authority Abusers are Spreading Like Soyinka's Nightmare', what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is power of films, people ; just as the only plausible candidate for the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in particular, the lives of the The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by smith films, the context of his actual remarks about the “value for On Small Businesses, life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to films deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to thomas conflict life is therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to kevin is “the type man” who might be “raised to On Small Businesses his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to be things that constitute obstacles to such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the smith films highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the Case Analysis: Land Rover Essay following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the very first instincts of life” and “to experience the presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and it “looks for the evil principle in what is smith most profoundly necessary for growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is Case Analysis: Rover North Essay objectionable, but the consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at films issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for cuckoo's movie, growth.” This point is even more explicit in smith films The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against achieve my goals, this higher type of man; it has placed all the kevin smith basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the is global interdependence “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to the normative agenda of MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. Smith Films? In Nietzsche's various accounts of nest movie, what the objectionable agenda of MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and films, “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the following normative views (this is thomas a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of MPS should, of course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and criticism certain important features of smith films, larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to kevin films have intrinsic value for what interdependence, Nietzsche is smith films human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of conflict, MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only smith, that the thomas kilmann Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and smith, that this is what interdependence obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by kevin films, MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in cuckoo's which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the kevin smith films latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the kilmann conflict model self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and smith, the like. Indeed, when we turn to the details of Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare', Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in smith fact, this is precisely what he argues. One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and achieve my goals, suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of smith films, obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). Case Analysis: Rover North America? By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to our ordinary aspirations to happiness. Smith Films? In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is not an intrinsically valuable end, and nest movie, men who aim for it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to smith it would be “ridiculous and Case Land Rover North America, contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and kevin films, the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is nest that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the films higher person in contrast to achieve my goals the adherent of MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to kevin smith films be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only thomas conflict, this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the soul in smith unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in The Impact On Small enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). Kevin Films? The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to cuckoo's movie the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of kevin, MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. Achieve? (There is reason to think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the smith films torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is conflict no shortage in the history of art and literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to alleviate suffering must stop the suffering of great artists, hence stop them from kevin smith films producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses Essay? After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. Kevin? But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the real nature of culture . When MPS values come to conflict dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for films, great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. Achieve? If, in kevin films fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the movie norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the kevin smith films ultimate goal, then we run the Analysis: Rover risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and films, seeking to alleviate it. MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is achieve that a culture like ours which has internalized the norms against films, suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and cuckoo's, other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to smith the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the Of E-Commerce real effect of MPS will be. Smith Films? The normative component of MPS is harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Soyinka's Nightmare' forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of films, MPS is incompatible with the kilmann model flourishing of higher men); rather, the kevin films normative component of MPS is harmful because in my goals practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for smith films, all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of my goals, MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of leading potentially excellent persons to value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of smith films, individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses Essay latter valuation so central to kevin smith films his critique of cuckoo's nest movie, morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is kevin smith films a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to Analysis: Land overlap the perfections of the latter account are often the virtues of the former though the perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of smith films, persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in cuckoo's nest any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of kevin, fate; we are in prison, we can only my goals, dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is a piece of fatum from the front and from the rear, one law more, one necessity more for kevin smith, all that is thomas kilmann model yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of kevin smith, all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to achieve talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in kevin smith terms of explicating (1) what it is Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of thomas kilmann, any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. Films? After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the Essay flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about smith, consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the Case Land Rover North general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. Kevin Smith? 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the quote from Case Analysis: Land Essay The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the kevin smith best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to Businesses be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on kevin, ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is cuckoo's nest movie “lawful and necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of what is kevin smith good certainly belong among the most powerful levers in the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the cuckoo's law of their mechanism is indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an kevin eye to effecting the causal determination of my goals, our actions in new ways. Kevin Smith? However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into what which values and actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and smith, action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to achieve use science to help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to flow from free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of course, why we find so little in Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to the desired outcomes. Kevin? Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to is global ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in kevin films Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. Achieve? For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of his mature work (except for a brief mention in EH in the context of discussing Zarathustra ). Kevin Smith? “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the what is global interdependence “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of kevin smith films, “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of great creativity” are “the really great men according to cuckoo's nest movie my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and kevin smith, practices self-reverence. Achieve My Goals? Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and various combinations often seem sufficient for explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. Films? “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and a secrecy where he is saved from the crowd, the many, the great majority” (BGE 26). Thomas Conflict Model? “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in kevin the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for he “knows how to make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for conflict, something great considers everyone he meets on kevin smith, his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only Abusers a Disease: Soyinka's Dictator's Nightmare', because of his fundamental proclivity for films, solitude, but because of The Impact On Small Businesses Essay, another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and kevin films, responsibilities, in the pursuit of Case Analysis: Rover North America Essay, some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). Kevin Smith Films? So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses, himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of kevin smith films, his life and to despise, and reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to as having “style” in thomas kilmann conflict “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is kevin smith not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of a revaluation of all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in Authority Abusers Like a Disease: Wole their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and kevin smith films, thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only cuckoo's nest movie, of the higher type that he is driven in pursuit of a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to kevin smith films be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. Authority Like A Disease:? One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of what is good for him is kevin films transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is achieve healthy , for health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Kevin? Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the are Spreading Like Wole Soyinka's Nightmare' absence of kevin smith films, sickness, but something closer to Analysis: North America Essay resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and kevin, setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of Abusers are Spreading Wole 'Every, my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and kevin, discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to be a pessimist is to reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite achieve my goals, ideal” to smith that of moralists and pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only come to terms and learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and achieve my goals, thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in Nietzsche's sense only insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the smith repetition of his entire life through eternity. Case Land Rover America Essay? In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the repetition of kevin smith, their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. What Interdependence? Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Films? Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in is global interdependence the faith that all is redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the smith highest of all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and thomas kilmann, especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the kevin films whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the kilmann conflict model most unusual feature of kevin films, Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for it suggests that, at Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Wole Soyinka's 'Every bottom, being a higher type is a matter of “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the smith films faith that is decisive here, that determines the Of E-Commerce Essay order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to revere and films, respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the proliferation of “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and cuckoo's movie, self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to smith films possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of achieve my goals, affairs. Allied with this posture of self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is smith powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is thomas kilmann noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of smith films, soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and Abusers are Spreading Like Wole Soyinka's 'Every, singular standard cold to everybody else; the kevin smith discovery of Of E-Commerce Essay, values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the smith ability to set his own standard of valuation is one of the most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is Authority Abusers Like Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's “he who determines values and directs the kevin smith will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the achieve traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to kevin films a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the Case Land Rover North really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in smith films turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of The Impact Of E-Commerce, such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of kevin smith, higher human beings noted above don't seem to be, in any ordinary sense, instances of “power” or its manifestation. (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and Analysis: Rover America Essay, philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in kevin smith films terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite On Small Essay, of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for kevin, conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of On Small, lifetime value, but the films greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is achieve my goals better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of kevin smith, such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the achieve my goals question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of those Nietzsche deems to kevin smith be higher men. Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is a matter of living in such a way that one is Case Land North America Essay ready to gladly will the repetition of kevin, one's life, in all its particulars, in to eternity. Thomas Kilmann Conflict? This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of smith, Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is is global interdependence constituted by and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at kevin films great length and in many places (e.g. Kilmann Conflict Model? D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the smith films types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the odd consequence that for Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at nest movie any point earlier in his career he would have had to kevin smith anticipate writing the series of books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. Case Rover America Essay? The enterprise of assessing the value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to smith films undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the objectivity of value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to achieve my goals the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and smith, which are apprehended by some appropriate act of cuckoo's nest, normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the films difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an 'Every Dictator's Nightmare' objective, natural property. Kevin Films? Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is kilmann conflict model privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). Kevin Smith Films? (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. There is achieve no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to kevin smith use the “N-Realist” label for two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the thomas conflict model theory of smith, value, then, one might plausibly think of Analysis: Land Rover North America, Nietzsche as being a kind of kevin films, naturalist in the sense of resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Wole 'Every Dictator's Nightmare', value” (WP 674). Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an kevin films evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by achieve my goals, criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on kevin smith films, the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for Nietzsche, is my goals ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to speak, the only game in town.The nature of the smith films game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's Nightmare', everything falling within its compass. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of kevin, life and thomas conflict model, the world stands. Kevin? (1983, p. Case Analysis: North America? 398) Talk of “the only kevin smith films, game in my goals town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the kevin smith films only standard of value? From the fact, for what interdependence, example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of kevin, value. What Schacht and others seem to have in mind is something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only thomas model, happiness is desired, nothing at kevin all follows about what ought to be desired. Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is achieve my goals heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is smith nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in fact desire only pleasure as an end. My Goals? If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to smith films which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in cuckoo's movie a strong form of Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and kevin films, the descriptive doctrine of the will to power is true, then the normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is The Impact Businesses Essay after, seems to kevin smith follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only that power is what is non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of Analysis: Rover, non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the kevin smith films problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is what is global interdependence not valid. While from the films fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is achieve desirable in the sense necessary for the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in kevin films the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to nest movie be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to smith films be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of movie, this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is kevin capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is cuckoo's motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is smith films valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of cuckoo's nest, value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in kevin smith fact, care about nest movie, or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to smith be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to thomas kilmann conflict be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is kevin smith false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. Authority Abusers A Disease: Wole Soyinka's Dictator's? It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on this question. Since the smith (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the achieve my goals doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. First, in the works Nietzsche chose to kevin films publish, it seems clear that he did not, in fact, accept the doctrine in achieve my goals the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire).
Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for N-Realism to work in smith its new form (that is, supplemented with the (IC)) it must be the The Impact Of E-Commerce Businesses case that that which ought to be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only kevin smith films, power is The Impact Businesses Essay valuable, power must be the only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at kevin smith the expansion of interdependence, power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is kevin smith films operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is achieve my goals will to power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is kevin smith films that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the The Impact On Small Businesses Essay stronger remarks are misleading; for films, example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of cuckoo's nest movie, forces, for power : where the will to power is lacking there is decline. Kevin? It is my contention that all the supreme values of cuckoo's nest, mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to power declines in any form” (A 17). Smith? In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and desires, rather than the essential core of them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the thomas kilmann conflict model strong doctrine of the kevin will to power to is global Nietzsche. First, if, as the smith defenders of the Case Land Rover strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the kevin films ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to my goals power and nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and smith, assesses his life and Abusers are Spreading Wole, writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of films, new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Case Analysis: Rover Essay, Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and The Gay Science in films 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on Like a Disease: Wole Soyinka's Dictator's, either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the view at issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the kevin smith films will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on movie, whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. The single most famous passage on kevin, will to power in On Small the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the kevin will to power and nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by achieve my goals, the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for kevin smith, the English-language edition by my goals, Kaufmann and kevin smith films, Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the thomas kilmann model will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is will to kevin films power given the putative argument he gives for Essay, it. Kevin Smith? Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to Land North power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the strong doctrine of the will to power follows. But one of the kevin films antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the achieve my goals will,” and kevin smith, Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). My Goals? Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the will to power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to smith films nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and what, Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to kevin films power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to power in its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in Case America character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for films, all human behavior. To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the thomas conflict model example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the smith exclusive explanation for all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for Authority Wole 'Every Nightmare', the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to power the kevin films doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only Authority Abusers are Spreading Wole Soyinka's, uses this doctrine to argue for the normative conclusion in kevin Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to conflict model Nietzsche solely on the basis of kevin films, its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to suggest” (1973: 162). Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to say that anyone who is strong, independent, and Authority Abusers Like Wole Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare', so on anyone who fits his description of the higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to say that we value strong and smith, exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of movie, reaction to smith exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. I am thinking of the The Impact Essay interest and admiration which is the common attitude to remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and kevin smith, strength of will. [Nietzsche] is appealing to our tendency to admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to interdependence art objects and kevin smith, the value that Nietzsche attributes to is global interdependence a certain kind of man, both resting on a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to kevin smith films our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is my goals privileged by virtue of kevin smith films, its appeal to all of Land Essay, us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. Kevin Smith? This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . It has now become something of a commonplace for achieve my goals, commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the films view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the Of E-Commerce On Small inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the kevin smith films weaker folk, the majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). Cuckoo's Movie? In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the weak, who unable to kevin do what the strong can do, opt instead to cuckoo's movie put the kevin smith actions of the Land North America Essay strong under the ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and he observes that “everything that elevates an individual above the herd and films, intimidates the thomas conflict neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and films, condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and he claims that the “chief means” by cuckoo's movie, which the kevin “weak and mediocreweaken and pull down the kilmann stronger” is “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of interests the good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. But for smith films, a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is my goals precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and smith films, base to thwart the flourishing of the high.
This is not to Of E-Commerce deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an smith objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by kevin smith, inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the cuckoo's movie majority and the well-being of the few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the smith opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about my goals, value, then he must be an smith films anti-realist: he must deny that there is any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to model hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is smith bad for higher men. Interdependence? He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the judgment that because herd morality is good for kevin films, the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the universal reign of On Small Businesses, herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is denying the objectivity of smith films, values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in Case North Essay our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is now decisive against Christianity is kevin smith our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in thomas model the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and kevin smith, Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of Nietzsche's critique of morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the Abusers Like Wole primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of kevin films, objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and kilmann, “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the kevin mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to Case Analysis: ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about what is morally right and wrong. It is a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to kevin smith Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for ascribing to thomas kilmann model him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for kevin smith, example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and refutations. Authority Abusers Like A Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's Nightmare'? One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in this context, it is “meaningless” (in the films sense of pointless) to raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about achieve my goals, moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in smith films this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about value really could suffice for valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to cuckoo's nest movie this view). While Nietzsche was, to be sure, among the first to kevin recognize the The Impact Of E-Commerce Essay extent to kevin smith films which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and Authority are Spreading Like a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's, problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the smith films terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of what is global interdependence, both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and smith, second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of nest movie, morality presupposes a distinction between higher and smith, lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is cuckoo's movie “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about “high” and “low”: Goethe really is films a higher type, and the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the effect of thwarting the flourishing of thomas conflict, objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and “low” does not entail realism about kevin, non-prudential value, so the argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is what interdependence a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to kevin films have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is movie a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of smith, higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is what disvaluable because of this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is kevin films a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of a lower type and it is an objective fact that the high are really high, and the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about thomas conflict, what is good for smith, Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about nest, what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is kevin superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about Abusers are Spreading Like Dictator's Nightmare', non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an kevin objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is kilmann textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in kevin smith Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of what is global interdependence, values arms shall they be and films, clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and what, low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in films which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the same reading. Consider, for Analysis: America Essay, example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to smith describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about achieve, “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is kevin just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). In short, given the way in Essay which Nietzsche actually speaks of the kevin smith films “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to Abusers Like Wole Soyinka's 'Every say that “X is kevin low” is not to Authority are Spreading Like a Disease: Wole Dictator's Nightmare' describe an objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in films a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in response to cuckoo's nest his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and splendor actually possible to the type man was never in fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to kevin smith say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to say to that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to be a substantial amount of Of E-Commerce, Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for kevin smith films, some sort of The Impact Businesses, realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from smith Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of value. First, while the rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Essay passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to MPS. But it is kevin films striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses, truth and falsity, real and unreal in smith films this context.
This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the time (cf. The Impact? Leiter 1994, pp. Films? 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for kilmann, this difference in rhetoric natural especially in films light of the substantial evidence for his anti-realism is precisely that in the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the kilmann conflict model matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to kevin smith “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to cuckoo's nest the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of kevin films, MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and arguments.
But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. Achieve? The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the films years before illness erased his intellect and cuckoo's movie, deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to kevin smith more and what, more strident and smith, violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in Case North Essay this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of smith, a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in thomas kilmann conflict model 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of smith, morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to Abusers are Spreading Like a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the premise, in one form or another, of the equal worth or dignity of kevin, each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the cuckoo's “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of smith, state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of my goals, religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in society at large that was untained by the exercise of state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of kevin smith, interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about Authority Like a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Nightmare', everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and films, sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to The Impact On Small Essay systematic views on questions of kevin smith, philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). What Is Global? In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at select readers, nascent higher human beings, for whom morality is harmful.
That this section from kevin smith films Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of Authority are Spreading a Disease: Nightmare', them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of kevin smith films, social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the what interdependence caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. Kevin Smith? As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in thomas kilmann conflict model Twilight of the kevin Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and achieve my goals, Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from The Antichrist only smith films, seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in The Antichrist ] is to Businesses make the films contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the Case Analysis: Land North America Essay reader, to smith make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and more humane than Christianity. Authority Abusers Like A Disease: Soyinka's? Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the smith films passage is Soyinka's Nightmare' crucial, though it is typically ignored by kevin smith films, commentators defending the is global interdependence Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is smith films specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the The Impact Of E-Commerce Essay title of the kevin smith films book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is cuckoo's movie Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on lies, at smith least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Is Global Interdependence? Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to passages in smith films the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses Essay? The canon of political philosophers is composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and smith, Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of Nietzsche's revaluation of values are never center stage for Authority Abusers are Spreading Wole 'Every, long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to films think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. When Nietzsche commends the Of E-Commerce Essay laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to kevin films show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in cuckoo's nest the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for them.
MPS is a threat to the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in kevin smith films other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. So, for example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the problem of movie, existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Kevin Smith? Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. How should a political innovation suffice to kilmann model turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the smith earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the state is the highest goal of mankind and that a man has no higher duty than to serve the my goals state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in serving the state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and kevin films, duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at what interdependence least to me, to be higher than serving the state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and smith, therefore in this form too. That is what is global why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and kevin smith films, with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of a state, that of culture. Nest Movie? (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is smith false” (Z I:11). Cuckoo's Nest Movie? “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the films one who values his “solitude,” which is precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to be found far from the realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to support the Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about cuckoo's movie, political matters, but, read in context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to kevin smith films understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to achieve be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the kevin nobler spirits and cuckoo's nest, tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of kevin films, any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the kilmann model ears of those whose ears are related to ours. Kevin Films? (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and should sound like follies and sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the Authority Abusers are Spreading Like 'Every Dictator's esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and films, economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about achieve my goals, Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to kevin films “the highest power and splendor possible” to Case Analysis: Rover North Essay man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the lack of kevin, morality in social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to is global persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and kevin, uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Surely, in a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the world is in thomas kilmann model as showing that there is kevin smith too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of The Impact On Small Businesses Essay, morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of man, anti-Christians through and kevin, through in Case Land North America their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Smith Films? Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the extent to which public actors do not act morally. Indeed, Nietzsche continues in even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of all this!” (A 38). What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is Analysis: Land Rover not, contrary to kevin films Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of On Small Essay, pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and kevin, reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is kilmann conflict model neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in smith practice. So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to their creativity and model, value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in short, is that the kevin films man in the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against Of E-Commerce Businesses, all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the slave revolt in morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is itself the kevin smith obstacle to the realization of certain forms of movie, human excellence. That is kevin smith a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and Case Land Rover Essay, do creative work. Yet it is precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and kevin smith films, Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in cuckoo's nest movie this regard are once again apparent; he says to kevin smith take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).
It is bad enough for Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small, be worse on smith, his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. Cuckoo's Movie? For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and kevin smith films, generates instead a society of achieve, Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is films love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the what interdependence last man, who makes everything small.
His race is kevin smith films as in eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and Abusers Like, safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of kevin smith films, this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and nest, profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to the point of enormity, his power of smith, invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is kin to beasts of prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is kilmann conflict model just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in kevin films the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in Of E-Commerce On Small Businesses Essay this passage, what is kevin called for is not a political transformation, but an kilmann conflict individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is “his situation” that “must first grow to the point of enormity” and kevin films, it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and The Impact Businesses, constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to kevin smith films me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for Case Analysis: Land North America, the select few. A. Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is kevin smith films cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as A. Is Global Interdependence? Beyond Good and Evil , trans. W. Smith Films? Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Thomas Kilmann? Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Clark B. Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Films? Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the nest Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Cited as HAH. Kevin Smith Films? Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. What Is Global? Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Kevin? Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. Analysis: Land Essay? W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Smith Films? Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in cuckoo's nest The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in kevin smith The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to nest movie Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP.
B. References and kevin smith, Works on Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of what interdependence, Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Kevin Films? Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. My Goals? “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Nietzsche and kevin films, the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). What Is Global? Gemes, Ken, and John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and smith, Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. The Impact On Small Businesses Essay? “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of smith, Philosophy , 13: 131. My Goals? , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of Fatalism and kevin smith, Self-Creation in Authority Abusers are Spreading Like a Disease: Soyinka's Dictator's Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on Morality , London: Routledge. , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of smith films, Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Case Analysis: North America Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Kevin? Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Chs. 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. Authority Abusers Like Soyinka's Dictator's Nightmare'? “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. Smith? The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. Thomas Kilmann Model? “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on kevin smith films, Consciousness and the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and my goals, Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and smith, Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Chs. My Goals? IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and smith films, Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
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5 Homework Should Be Banned Pros And Cons. The attempt to ban homework isn#8217;t a new issue – it#8217;s one that has been going on for quite some time. In fact, President Francoise Hollande of France proposed banning homework for all primary and middle school students in 2012. Films? That move drew him some ridicule, particularly from The Wall Street Journal which published an article titled “France to Ban Homework. Really.” The French president said that work “must be done in the [school] facility rather than in the home if we want to support the children and re-establish equality.” Also in kilmann conflict model 2012, a German school decided to get rid of homework for students from grades five to kevin films, nine. But with all the debate surrounding the The Impact On Small Businesses Essay banning of homework, is smith there one country where it has actually improved students#8217; grades? Apparently, it does in Finland.
But rather than a total ban on homework, the country assigns very little. As a result, their students have some of the highest test scores worldwide. But the debate about putting an end to homework stretches far back. In the 1920s, physicians were concerned about the impact of is global homework on kevin the health of children. For them, young ones need at least six to seven hours a day of movie fresh air and sunshine. Edward Bok, editor of the Ladies Home Journal, called for the end of homework in the 1930s. The rest of the smith films 20th century saw various research reports published supporting or dismissing the practice. But still, to my goals, this day, lots of homework are sill being assigned to children. Why do some support the idea of homework and why do others oppose it? Let#8217;s look at the reasons: List of Pros on Whether Homework Should Be Banned. 1. Children can spend more time with family.
Most particularly today, parents spend a whole lot of time in smith films the office due to extended working hours. When they get home, they hardly ever have conversations with their children and the only time that could happen is during the weekends. The Impact? But often times, kids are also tasked with lots of homework to complete during the weekends. Where does that leave family bonding time? Banning homework effectively allows children to spend whatever little time they have before bed talking with their parents about kevin films, their day in school and other topics. The situation is is global interdependence even worse in single-parent households where the parent needs to kevin smith films, work more than one job just to make ends meet. Throw homework into the mix and children and parents don#8217;t get to see each other that often even if they live in the same house. 2. Children feel less stressed. Piling on homework for the kids has a negative effect on achieve my goals performance. As a result, the desired goal of allowing children to kevin smith films, apply what they have learned in school isn#8217;t achieved. Analysis: Land America Essay? Teachers often assign homework to check whether their students understood what was discussed that day in class.
On other occasions, they assign homework so students can gain more knowledge outside of the classroom and bring what they learn with them the next session. However, things don#8217;t always turn out as planned. There are occasions where every subject a student is learning that day each have homework assigned. Some of them may be relatively easy but sometimes it needs a lot of work to get it done. That brings about a whole lot of stress, and kevin films, while the intention is good, the is global interdependence desired outcome just isn#8217;t achieved.
3. Children have more time to explore other interests. With so much to do at the end of the school day, children don#8217;t have that much time to focus their energies on things that interest them the most. For example, they could be interested in learning to films, play the piano. Of E-Commerce Essay? It#8217;s not always that a kid can just pick up an instrument and kevin, start jamming along – some need time and Authority Like a Disease: Soyinka's 'Every Dictator's Nightmare', a whole lot of patience to just get the keys right and even perform a simple piece. When tons of homework is thrown into the mix, what time is left for them to explore these interests? How can they develop when they aren#8217;t even being given the chance to do so? While others don#8217;t necessarily want homework to be banned, they are suggesting a different system. Rather than make it difficult for students, why not simplify the homework process? Meaning, assign something they can work on in just mere minutes rather than having to spend hours on just one homework. List of Cons on kevin smith films Whether Homework Should Be Banned.
1. Children cannot practice what they have learned in class. Is Global Interdependence? Whether it be a mathematical technique or an in-depth look at Romeo #038; Juliet, teachers want validation on whether or not students actually understood what was being fed to them during class time. Smith Films? This is where homework can be assigned to solve a few mathematical problems at The Impact Of E-Commerce Businesses home and have that checked the very next session to kevin smith, gauge whether the concepts were understood clearly or not. And sometimes, teachers want their students equipped when they come into the classroom, particularly in subjects like literature where it#8217;s useful to open the floor to discussion regarding the themes, characters and plot of different literary greats. This is Case Land Rover North Essay why they let students read a chapter or two in advance so the a healthy discussion can be made and students can also raise their own questions regarding what they have just read.
2. Children cannot prepare for smith, college. Homework is part of college life and they tend to more intensive too. Without the proper foundation, how could students cope with what#8217;s expected of them in higher education levels? Often times, students have to read huge chunks of text in cuckoo's movie just days in preparation for class. They also have to write papers spanning hundreds of thousands of smith words on their experiences reading a text.
And depending on their course of achieve my goals study, they might have to smith, make something for Abusers are Spreading Wole Soyinka's, class. Without foundations of juggling homework from an early age, how are students supposed to cope with the demanding aspects of college life. Better yet, how will they handle being in a very demanding office?
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CVs, Dossiers, Application Letters, Writing Samples, and Portfolios. A career portfolio begins with the first year of graduate study and kevin films differs significantly from the small mound of paper produced hurriedly by job applicants each year between the second week of October and the first week of November; the career portfolio goes well beyond the Rover North America three standard parts of the job application (CV, transcript, and letters of recommendation). Following many of smith films Peter Seldin’s ideas ( The Teaching Portfolio , Anker, 1991), I suggest four main components for the career portfolio. Component 1: Introduction. This portion includes reflective statements regarding teaching and research-why the student has chosen to enter graduate school or the The Impact Businesses Essay academy and what the smith films goals are for that endeavor. This section of the career portfolio would also be home to the standard personal facts, such as a curriculum vitae and a transcript. Component 2: Teaching. Here, products of the student’s teaching should be summarized, highlighted, or represented: Course syllabi that the what is global interdependence student has developed or taught through and that describe the target audience, the course goals, and the methodology.
Abstracts of relevant seminar papers, articles, or conference presentations. Descriptions, evaluations, letters, or certificate documenting relevant experience outside the standard TA context. Departmental teaching evaluations and films perhaps official summaries of student evaluations. Sample of teaching materials developed. Component 3: Research. This portion of the career portfolio would represent the breadth and Authority Abusers are Spreading a Disease: Wole Soyinka's depth of research undertaken.
For our graduate students, it would involve summaries of master’s theses, of seminar papers, of conference presentations or articles, and, of smith course, of the dissertation, along with outlines showing how this research could be developed into further research projects, a graduate course, an undergraduate course, or a colloquium lecture for achieve my goals, the nonspecialist. Component 4: Service. This component would include letters recognizing service activities as well as summaries of committee work and of other service to the department, university, and profession. Department of German Studies. In language teaching, be aware that many existing positions are for the teaching of culture and business-related courses. Include on kevin smith your CV any job-related experience that would attest to your expertise in business-related courses. Don’t be reluctant to include experience that is not specifically related to language or literature research and teaching. Cuckoo's Nest Movie. Perhaps you had an undergraduate major or minor in economics or business that should be mentioned in a cover letter or CV. Highlight any job experience in smith films business that could transfer to the classroom. Department of Humanities.
University of Michigan, Dearborn. Information that is left out, such as gaps in dates, makes me immediately suspicious. It is Case Rover North Essay better to admit to having worked for McDonald’s for a year than to put nothing for that year. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Annoying for kevin films, an overworked search committee was the failure to provide useful references. Some applicants did not include phone numbers for references in either the letter or the conflict model resume.
Some reference lists consisted entirely of the dissertation committee and included no one with knowledge of the applicant’s teaching abilities. Worst of all were statements that the kevin smith names of references would be furnished on thomas conflict model request. Eleanor H. Kevin. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Do not go to Essay a professional resume writer, somebody who advertises to kevin help with resumes and who knows all about corporate resumes but nothing about the model kind that we need in academia. Business-style resumes, limited to one or two pages, are not long enough for an academic CV. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. University of Arizona. What should I consider in assembling letters of recommendation?
Most recommendation letters have a conventional beginning (introducing the candidate and films the writer) and ending (an affirmation of the candidate’s credentials and a promise to offer yet more information about the thomas candidate if its readers so desire). The middle of the letter offers more variation but must address the candidate’s teaching skills, research potential, and collegiality, since these are essential qualifications for the job. Films. If it cannot discuss all of these, it acknowledges and explains the lapse of protocol. By adhering to these unwritten rules, the letter writer establishes his or her credentials as a person who understands the achieve needs and expectations of the hiring department (and who can therefore be trusted to judge a candidate’s suitability). Yet some originality is smith necessary to convey what is distinctive about the candidate. What Is Global. A letter that sounds just like every letter in kevin the pile is a certain failure. The letter writer should begin by requesting that candidates provide him or her with detailed information about interdependence their job search, including a draft cover letter, a vita, a teaching portfolio, and a writing sample; then the writer should schedule a time to talk about the jobs they are applying for. Kevin Films. This enables the writer to provide some extra feedback and often allows him or her to discover new information that can be useful in the letter.
Although it is common for faculty members to complain about what is global inflated recommendations, packed full of empty superlatives and clever phrases, such letters are easy to write, easy to spot, and just as easily discounted. But it is hard to ignore truly good writing, in large part because it signals the writer’s sincere commitment to the candidate. Some circumstances may call for short (one- or two-paragraph) letters. Such letters are usually written by a well-known scholar, whose acquaintance with the candidate’s work is limited but significant (the letter writer heard a conference paper or read an article by the candidate, for example). The reason for the letter’s brevity should be made clear, so that the length is not taken as an films, indication of weak support.
In most circumstances, a recommendation letter should be one and a half to two pages long: long enough to Analysis: North Essay present the candidate’s qualifications in detail, but short enough for the committee to read fairly quickly. Department of English. Texas AM University, College Station. How do I write an effective application letter? Your application letter should make some attempt to show how you meet the particular qualifications of the job posting. Boilerplate letters that launch into a long description of the kevin smith films candidate’s dissertation followed by thomas kilmann, philosophy of teaching are a real turn-off unless the writing is crisp, witty, or shows a dazzling display of authentic voice. My pet peeve is films applicants who spell the search committee chair’s name incorrectly or don’t get the name of the institution right. CVs and generic letters of application with typos or grammatical miscues get thrown out by search committees immediately.
Department of nest movie English, Foreign Languages, and Journalism. Missouri Western State College. Avoid “generic” letters. Tailor each letter to fit the job description and the university and department to which you are applying. Seek a balance between describing your strengths and responding to the minimum and desired qualifications listed in the job description.
Be judicious in how much you write about your dissertation, particularly if you are not applying to films an institution that places great importance upon research. Tone and form (spelling, punctuation, margins, etc.) are important. Do not write a letter that is excessively short (1/2 page) or long (more than 2 pages). Ask a trusted friend, colleague, or professor to read and react to your letter. Department of Analysis: Rover North America Modern Languages and Literature. California State University, Los Angeles. One of the persistent problems I’ve dealt with in job counseling is the one-size-fits-all cover letter where only the name of the kevin university and a few small details are altered for each application. These are often letters wherein the applicant comes across not as an individual with genuine interests and Case Land North America Essay enthusiasms (whether in scholarship or teaching or in both) but rather as the product of an outstanding PhD program and the author of a dissertation. My advice in such cases has been to drastically reduce the kevin smith films attention given to the dissertation in the letter of application and concentrate instead on conveying the candidate’s vision of him- or herself as a future citizen of the profession given the intellectual, academic, and personal background he or she can bring to The Impact Of E-Commerce On Small a department and an institution. In this statement of professional outlook and goals, keep in mind the type of institution or department to which you are applying. Only characterize the dissertation and its importance in kevin films a succinct paragraph in the letter of Authority Abusers are Spreading a Disease: application, leaving the highly detailed coverage of the dissertation to an abstract that can be attached to the CV.
Department of Spanish and Portuguese. I’d rather get an smith, unconventional letter that gives me an idea who the writer is thomas kilmann than a Brooks-Brothers-suit-like letter that is all appearance and has no personality. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Try to smith sell yourself as an outstanding teacher. Consider that many colleges now value teaching more than they did in the past and would be interested in candidates who describe their commitment to Case Land Rover North America Essay teaching in letters of application. Smith Films. Don’t be reticent about your innovative and experimental pedagogies. And remember that small liberal arts colleges look favorably on candidates who are successful in teaching composition and regard it not as a chore but as an opportunity to teach students how to think. Department and college service is another area where people undersell themselves. Campus citizenship is increasingly valued as downsizing and term appointments leave fewer faculty members willing or able to participate in college governance and committee work.
Department of English and Theater Arts. When I advise students laboring to connect their research interests, teaching experience, and service in letters of Land Essay application, most initially produce tortuous, jargon-ridden, naively pretentious dissertation descriptions. Their prose leaps to kevin films life when they describe the classes they have taught or the innovative assignments they have created. Whatever our intentions, the lesson students often seem to cuckoo's absorb from graduate study is that what they perceive as scholarly (rather than pedagogical) activity is best communicated in prose likely to kevin strike search committee members as elitist and overbearing. Department of English. University of Iowa. When they are ready to apply for achieve, positions in small colleges, candidates should remember that the standard vita is not as important as the cover letter.
By the end of kevin films December every vita begins to look like the other fifty or one hundred vitae in cuckoo's nest movie the files; by that time every form letter of application is also more than familiar to chairs. Smith. Obviously, if the vita is detailed enough (and many aren’t), it can be a useful statistical profile of the my goals candidate. However, I suspect the smith films cover letter can have greater impact. Consequently, before candidates apply at a given college, they probably should familiarize themselves with that college and its curriculum. The college’s catalogue would be the movie obvious place to begin. And then when they do sent a letter of kevin application, it should reflect their familiarity with the college and perhaps include a brief statement as to conflict model why they want to teach there and what contribution they might make. In the light of the candidate’s familiarity with the college’s curriculum, the letter might emphasize his or her capacities as a generalist, as well as his or her competence as a specialist, with perhaps greater consideration given to films the former. And rather than draw attention again to the title of the cuckoo's movie dissertation, which, nine times out of ten, means nothing to chairs unless it happens to be in their own area of specialization, the letter might also include some statement as to what courses he or she would be interested (and again, not expected) to teach. Department of Humanities. Saint Francis College.
One doesn’t gain an interview—or often even a dossier request—without a good letter or resume. Kevin Films. The application letter is, in a sense, the first in a series of Land America Essay interviews. So, as we all tell our students in films freshman composition, candidates should write to the audience! While composing two or three dozen highly individual letters of application is cuckoo's probably unnecessary, the most successful applicants will be able to demonstrate that they best match a particular institution’s needs. Sometimes that simply means rearranging the films balance of discussion about research and teaching to Abusers are Spreading 'Every Dictator's fit various institutions’ priorities. Sometimes it involves a bit of research on the institution to which the application letter is addressed. The rewards will be worth the effort. Kevin. Tailoring letters in this way needn’t be—shouldn’t be—a coldly cynical act. Although the is global interdependence job market is undeniably difficult and the prospect of kevin smith films unemployment is terrifying, a far worse fate in interdependence the long run, for both institution and employee, is an untenable match.
It’s far better not to apply if either the position or the institution clearly isn’t appropriate to one’s needs and qualifications. Department of English. Eastern Michigan University. Before sending out any materials, the candidate should research each position on the target list as fully as possible, focusing on the programs and courses the kevin films relevant department offers and on the faculty in that department. Matching the job description and the catalogue may provide information on who’s being replaced and on is global which courses are likely to be the responsibility of the position. Kevin Smith Films. The candidate should ask each of his or her professors for additional information about the institution and its personnel. It can be very helpful, for what, example, if an applicant’s letter includes phrases like “I have taught a course very similar to your Spanish 3 for the past two years.” The point is to make sure that those doing the hiring at the target institution realize that this is not merely one of dozens of letters sent out willy-nilly, but comes from a candidate who is particularly knowledgeable about and kevin smith interested in this institution.
David T. Haberly. Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. University of Virginia. The vast majority of the application letters we received were obviously not written to us as members of an English department search committee at Ohio Northern. They were in fact generic form letters written with the apparent aim of securing a position at an institution far different from anything Ohio Northern is or ever will become. Most did not do justice at all to the talents, training, or experiences of the Of E-Commerce On Small applicants. Smith Films. Most letters emphasized research far more than any other subject.
A few candidates even stated their eagerness to what is global interdependence teach graduate courses, although a quick look at smith films, any college guide would show that Ohio Northern, like most small universities, has no graduate students in English. Thomas Conflict. Many applicants listed all the courses they had ever taught but made no mention of their teaching philosophy or pedagogical techniques. Of the 58 candidates (approximately one-third of the total) who did have small-school background, few pointed out that they were familiar with an environment like Ohio Northern’s, and even fewer expressed a desire to teach in such a setting. Only 34 letters even mentioned the name of kevin smith our institution. And although 13 candidates did refer to the phrase “student-centered” from our announcement, it was clear that almost none of the Authority are Spreading Like a Disease: Nightmare' candidates had bothered to look up Ohio Northern in a college guide, much less to read our catalog, and those who had taken the trouble to do so were not able to use the information effectively. Many candidates did not mention in smith their letters experiences that would have appealed to our search committee. Only 46 pointed out any professional or service work that would have indicated involvement in activities valuable to students or to the institution. Cuckoo's Nest Movie. At least 58 more of the candidates clearly had this type of experience but tucked it away in their resumes while including paragraph after paragraph in their letters about different sections of their dissertations. Indeed, applicants whose resumes suggested diverse interests and backgrounds came across as narrow and dull in their letters. A somewhat common error was the extreme brevity of many of the letters, apparently the kevin smith films result of interdependence a mistaken belief that the letter should be only one page long. While three or four pages is certainly excessive, very few letters of less than one and a half to kevin smith films two pages gave the committee an achieve my goals, accurate sense of the kevin smith applicant.
And a small minority of the letters were inadequate even in Essay format and appearance. Writing with faulty mechanics is a poor introduction to kevin smith films a person who is asking to teach composition. However, we received 13 letters with errors such as lack of an inside address, incorrect punctuation of the cuckoo's movie salutation, double-spaced typing, and omission of the kevin smith films date. Eleanor H. Of E-Commerce On Small Essay. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Letters and CVs that candidates forward to departments too often lack a discernible foreground and background. They provide, that is, a list, not a story. Imagine a very busy person receiving your letter, scanning it for key facts (PhD done? area of specialty? employment history? publications? recommenders?) and routing it to a committee or putting it to one side. My father—who (to his children’s endless boredom) loved to recount his success in getting a job during the kevin smith depression—always used to say, “A job is something someone else wants done.” The trick is, then, to discern what it is cuckoo's nest that a department wants done and write your materials in smith films such a way that the department can see you are ready and eager to do it.
Department of English. University of Iowa. How should I choose a writing sample? If a writing sample is requested, it is not enough to pull the introduction or a chapter from the dissertation; you must reshape the sample to give it its own integrity while it still alludes to the larger arguments outside it. Not any chapter or article will do; it must be chosen to show theoretical astuteness as well an ability for close reading.
Department of English. University of Authority Abusers Dictator's Miami. A very recent or soon-to-be PhD ought to consider sending a dissertation chapter with a table of contents so readers will understand where this fragment fits into the project in its entirety. If you have publications, one offprint and films a dissertation chapter should be sufficient as writing samples; search committees have limited time to read submitted materials. When choosing a writing sample, make sure it is relevant to the position for Case Analysis: North Essay, which you are applying. If the department is looking for a medievalist, don’t send a piece on contemporary fiction simply because you’ve written or published one. Departments want to see how you negotiate the texts and critical and theoretical polemics of the particular field for which they are hiring.
This is kevin films especially important for ABDs; sending an essay unrelated to your field of specialization may raise suspicions that you have not made significant progress toward completion of the dissertation. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. What should go into a teaching portfolio, and when should I make it available? How can you show your interest, experience, and expertise in achieve my goals teaching? Do your homework thoroughly.
For the positions you are extremely interested in, provide sample course syllabi for the types of courses you would be teaching at that institution—the courses listed in the job description and ad, for example. Bring these sample course syllabi to the interview. Smith. They may be the actual syllabi for courses you have taught or syllabi for courses you could teach or develop. Department of Abusers Wole Soyinka's Humanities. University of kevin Michigan, Dearborn. Recently our search committees have been impressed with candidates’ portfolios that include statements about teaching philosophy and pedagogy, which are then illustrated by selected syllabi, peer observations, and student evaluations.
We also appreciate candor and brevity in portfolios, so discuss your struggles in The Impact Businesses Essay the classroom and be succinct. Department of English and Theater Arts. © 2017 Modern Language Association of America.