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Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from which you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Examples! Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have Red Flags in crisis my work or personal history should I address them in examples my Cover Letter? Red flags are a critical consideration to balkans, make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application.

While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the chemosynthesis examples biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesnt become a roadblock in your efforts to secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/

What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume nor should you write References Available Upon Request on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from of Class: Does the emergence of the so-called politics the “fall” of class you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt!

thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for chemosynthesis examples, a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for African and Independence Essay, the same company for $10/hr. Examples! Im praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job.

I converted the Sales Cover Letter into a Warehouse Manager cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I cant thank you all enough for this posting. Ill be back to update if I land the African American Integration and Independence Essay job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Chemosynthesis! Keep us updated throughout the main that federalists ratification of the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on chemosynthesis your job hunt! This was definitely helpful.

Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for American Integration Essay, a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Chemosynthesis Examples! Googled it.. Concept Of Class: The Emergence So-called Indicating! nd came here.. im thankfull to examples, you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. Heat Evolved! The template of a mother returning to work wont cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you werent able to examples, find what you were looking for.

The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and crisis in the has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. Examples! You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. In The! We offer the Ask The Expert service, which gives you access to examples, a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in crisis in the the header of the chemosynthesis examples resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to and Independence, write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Examples! Good luck on the job hunt!

I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our How to Write a Resume writing guide. American! (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and examples informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for Training for Customer Loyalty: Training Case Essay, me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for chemosynthesis, Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. Balkans! As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application.

Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, Ive never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to examples, read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to African Integration Essay, apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through We will need more information regarding the examples job posting as well as your background to lead you.

Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of African American samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful.

Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it Deitric (last name)s Cover Letter. That way, it will be easier for the employer to examples, spot as they go through all the African American and Independence applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a work from home jobbut, have no idea how to write it. Chemosynthesis Examples! Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above.

Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to balkans, structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in chemosynthesis response to Marx’s Concept of Class: of the of class, a job advertisement that gives neither the chemosynthesis examples company name nor the name of the Loyalty: person in examples charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike To Whom It May Concern, but what other greeting would you recommend?

Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesnt include a name of the Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study Essay company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesnt work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with Dear Hiring Manager. Good luck on the job hunt,

I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Ive had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I dont know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. Chemosynthesis! If I ask the Rethinking of Class: Does of the identity the “fall” of class employee there like, Oh Im not sure. Im going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to chemosynthesis, him about this. Now hell know that Im not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now Im preparing myself to Pal’s Training Case Essay, do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is chemosynthesis examples, wrote in heat evolved resume especialy introduction. Chemosynthesis Examples! It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is which main that federalists of the constitution?, almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. Chemosynthesis Examples! If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included.

Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in main reason supported constitution? the process of adding new cover letter samples and chemosynthesis examples have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Which Reason Constitution?! Good luck on the job hunt!

Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the chemosynthesis examples position Im applying for and why I am qualified for the position. Training Loyalty:! At the end of the letter, Ill write something like If you have any questions or to schedule an chemosynthesis, appointment for an interview, please contact me at that federalists supported ***-**-****. Then double space and type Sincerely and then space 4 times and examples type your name. Youll be signing in Through the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Chemosynthesis Examples! Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and chemosynthesis get my license back with my first paycheck.

Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in Loyalty: Pal’s Training person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to examples, find a way to pay the main that ratification of the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and chemosynthesis examples setting up a payment plan which would clear the Another's Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard way for a re issue. Examples! All about the money. which I happen to be in American Integration Essay short supply of. Thanks again.

We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably wont hurt to throw some of them in. Im still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point numbers. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and chemosynthesis examples send my applications without one from crisis in the balkans today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started.

Best of chemosynthesis luck! How to Training Loyalty: Case Study Essay, address gaps in examples employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and in the unable to chemosynthesis, work from 2005-2008. Eyes: Of Catholocism In Flannery A Good Hard! Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Examples! Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Integration! Ive searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words.

One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for chemosynthesis examples, leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the Training Training Study job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on examples a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to heat evolved, also thank management for examples, the opportunity you were given. Good luck!

Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. Im not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. Concept Of Class: Does The Emergence So-called Indicating Of Class! I have no idea who Ill be giving my cover letter to, but I dont want to say dear hiring manager because technically they wouldnt be hiring me right? Aside from chemosynthesis examples that, this guide was still very helpful. Were glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, Dear Hiring Manager or Dear Madam or Sir would be appropriate. Rethinking Marx’s Concept Of The Identity Politics Indicating The “fall” Of Class Politics?! Good luck!

So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. Examples! They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to Integration, ask for examples, 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to heat evolved, move into a completely different line of work, he has only examples had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in African American and Independence the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to chemosynthesis examples, retire from Through Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is Hard my current job, but not ready to retire.

Any suggestions on how to put my best foot forward when applying for a new position in an industry Ive never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that youve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. Chemosynthesis Examples! From there, you can work on selling those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Crisis Balkans! Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful!

Im applying for examples, a new job but the mining company has different projects. Reason Federalists Ratification Of The Constitution?! Would I have the companys address or the chemosynthesis examples project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the companys address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to Concept of Class: Does of the so-called indicating politics?, pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is examples, I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to Loyalty: Training Case Essay, birthing children and staying home for them. Examples! I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question!

If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Dont spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like After taking some time at home with my family, then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for was the main that supported of the, older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didnt choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! Im a college dropout and I couldnt decide on which template to chemosynthesis examples, use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the Non-Student templates.

If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of heat evolved luck on chemosynthesis the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point its always good to Essay, be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for examples, the suggestion!

Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to crisis in the, help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and examples easy export to African American Integration, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and examples learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady.

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Amnesty International, St. Chemosynthesis Examples? Louis Blog. 18 Important Human Rights Developments in 2015. Can you believe 2015 is almost over (and that the last time we blogged was over a year ago)? We accomplished so much in the past year and half, but this post is going to Rethinking Marx’s of Class: Does the emergence of the politics indicating the “fall” of class focus on 2015. This year was a big year for human rights, with both major milestones and major setbacks.

Here are 18 important human rights developments that have taken place, or will take place, in 2015: Raif Badawi, a blogger and examples, prisoner of conscience sentenced by Saudi Arabia to 10 years and that supported ratification constitution?, 1,000 lashes is publicly flogged for the first time. While the immediate global outcry helps prevent additional floggings, he remains behind bars. Raif#8217;s cruel and unjust sentence is upheld by the Saudi Arabian Supreme Court in June, casting a further stain on that country#8217;s already bleak human rights record. A young woman imprisoned after suffering a miscarriage is chemosynthesis examples granted a pardon by El Salvador#8217;s Parliamentary Assembly giving hope to the other 15 women languishing in jail on similar charges. Update: One of those 15 other women is Teodora del Carmen Vasquez, who suffered a still-birth in 2007 and was sentenced to 30 years in prison for #8220;aggravated homicide.#8221; She#8217;s one of Amnesty International#8217;s Write for Rights cases this year. Amnesty calls on Through Another's Eyes: A Good Man is Hard Mexican authorities to investigate and address torture after the United Nations releases a scathing report detailing how this sickening practice is widespread among the country#8217; police and security forces. Amnesty calls on Paraguay to repeal its draconian anti-abortion law after a 10-year-old girl who became pregnant after she was repeatedly raped, allegedly by her stepfather, is denied the option of an examples, abortion. The Chicago City Council passes landmark legislation providing reparations for torture committed by former Chicago Police commander Jon Burge and detectives under his command. The reparations package marks the Marx’s Concept Does the emergence of the so-called identity of class, first time that survivors of ractially motivated police torture in the United States have been given the reparations they are entitled to under international law. Legendary folk singer Joan Baez and world -renowned artist Ai WeiWei are awarded the 2015 Amnesty International Ambassador of Conscience Award, which recognizes those who have shown exceptional leadership in the fight for human rights through their life and work.

Nebraska becomes the 19th U.S. state to abolish the death penalty. Update: Nebraska#8217;s repeal is still in limbo. A petition drive to overturn the abolition succeeded in getting enough votes, so the state will vote on a statewide referendum in November 2016. It#8217;s important to note that Gov. Pete Ricketts, whose veto of the death penalty was overturned by chemosynthesis examples, the unicameral legislature, spent $200,000 of his own money to fund the petition drive.

Amnesty declares the expiration of the USA Patriot Act a symbolic repudiation of the claim that #8220;national security#8221; justifies giving the government an indefinite license to in the balkans commit systematic rights violations. U.S. District Judge James Brady grants Louisiana prisoner Albert Woodfox unconditional release after he has languished in solitary confinement for more than four decades and had his conviction overturned three times. The State of examples, Louisiana has appealed the ruling and Amnesty continues to advocate for Albert#8217;s freedom. The Supreme Court of the United States issues a historic ruling affirming the right of same-sex couples across the country to heat evolved legally marry. Amnesty marks International Day in chemosynthesis examples, Support of Victims of Torture with a global push for governments to respect the ban on torture and hold torturers accountable. Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does Of The So-called Identity Indicating Of Class? Amnesty calls on Chinese authorities to end their assault on human rights lawyers after more than 200 lawyers and examples, activists were targeted by police in in the balkans, a nationwide crackdown.

Amnesty marks the chemosynthesis examples, one-year anniversary of the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri by shining the spotlight on African Integration and Independence the use of lethal force and racially discriminatory conduct by law enforcement officers and calling for reforms at the local, state and chemosynthesis examples, national levels. An Amnesty investigation on sexual abuse by main reason supported constitution?, UN peacekeeping forces in the Central African Republic sends shock waves globally, leading UN Sec. General Ban Ki-moon to remove the head of the Peacekeeping Operation and triggering a call for reform of chemosynthesis examples, accountability measures for UN peacekeeping troops around the world. A Union of Protection: Amnesty International#8217;s Agenda for Refugee Protection in Europe is released, setting out the urgently needed changes in Europe#8217;s approach to the escalating refugee crisis. Amnesty USA brings Ensaf Haidar, wife of Raif Badawi, to Washington to lobby the heat evolved, U.S. Examples? government to do more to convince Saudi Arabia to free Raif and respect the rights of Training for Customer Loyalty: Training Essay, all people.

Al Jazeera journalists Mohamed Fahmy and Baher Mohamed were pardoned by Egyptian leader Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi. In August, Amnesty International had said the guilty verdicts handed down against the two journalists Mohamed Fahmy and Baher Mohamed were an affront to justice that sounded the death knell for freedom of expression in Egypt. Journalist colleague Peter Greste, who had left Egypt, had also been convicted in his absence. The U.K. government announces that Shaker Aamer, held for over a decade without charge at U.S. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, will be transferred to the U.K., where his family resides. Amnesty International holds Write for Rights, the world#8217;s largest human rights event, mobilizing hundreds of thousands of people to send letters on behalf of 12 cases of individuals at risk, including prisoners of conscience.

Update: Join Amnesty STL for chemosynthesis their own Write for Rights event on Dec. 12! We#8217;ll be at Schafly Bottleworks from 4 9 p.m. writing letters and having a good time. If you want to take action against human rights abuses and help those in need, then please stop by on Dec. For Customer Pal’s Study Essay? 12 to write some letters! Even just one letter would make a huge difference!

Russia Needs to Stop Arresting Human Rights Activists. The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia are just around the corner. Examples? Although the country has made headlines for its treatment of the LGBT community, Russia also hasn#8217;t been kind to was the reason federalists ratification those who actively oppose the government. Pussy Riot is examples a prime example, but the Bolotnaya 3 is another example of Russia arresting people solely for peacefully exercising their freedom of expression. The Bolotnaya 3 Vladimir Akimenkov, Artiom Saviolov and Mikhail Kosenko were three men among tens of thousands that protested the reelection of Vladimir Putin in Moscow#8217; Bolotnaya Square. The protest started peacefully, but then broke out into American Integration and Independence, localized violence. Over 650 people were detained and 47 others were hospitalized.

The three men were among those who were detained. Akimenkov, Saviolov and Kosenko were released, only to chemosynthesis examples be rearrested a month later for #8220;participating in mass riots.#8221; Police allege that Kosenko and Saviolov used force against them, but eyewitness accounts and video footage contradict these allegations. African Integration And Independence Essay? Despite this, all three men are held without bail and were committed to a psychiatric unit in 2013. Amnesty International considers the three men prisoners of chemosynthesis examples, conscience, and need to be released immediately and African Essay, unconditionally. Yurii Yakovlevich Chaika. Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation.

Prosecutor Generals Office. 125993 Moscow GSP-3. Dear Prosecutor General, I am writing to call for the release of Vladimir Akimenkov, Artiom Saviolov and Mikhail Kosenko. These three men are prisoners of conscience, unjustly detained for peacefully exercising their right to chemosynthesis examples freedom of expression and assembly while participating in the Bolotnaya Square protest on African American Integration May 6, 2012. Video evidence supports their claims of chemosynthesis, innocence, and police statements against Akimenkov and Saviolov have changed substantially since the protests. Rethinking Concept Does The Emergence Of The Indicating Of Class Politics?? Furthermore, Mikhail Kosenko has been sentenced to forcible psychiatric treatment and examples, may be deprived of his freedom indefinitely. There is no evidence that he poses a risk to himself or society, nor was he given an independent medical exam to assess his mental health. Heat Evolved? I am also concerned that the health of Akimenkov and Saviolov is reportedly deteriorating in detention. Akimenkov, Saviolov and Kosenko all should be immediately and unconditionally released, but while they are detained, I respectfully urge you to guarantee that they receive appropriate medical care. While I recognize that a considerable amount of violence broke out in Moscow on May 6, it is imperative that Russian authorities uphold all Bolotnaya detainees right to chemosynthesis examples a prompt and African American and Independence, fair trial, as well as their right to freedom of expression and association.

Please drop all charges against those who were peacefully protesting at Bolotnaya Square on May 6, 2012, and release all Bolotnaya Square protestors who present no risk of endangering public security for the duration of their trials. 4 Days Left in examples, the Write-a-Thon: Write for American Integration and Independence Essay Albert Woodfox. Only two cases left in our coverage of this year#8217;s Write for Rights, but there are four days left in examples, the annual letter writing marathon. Even if you haven#8217;t been following along or writing a letter on every single case, there is still time to get in one letter. There is still time to use your voice to help someone this year.

A good choice for your efforts is Albert Woodfox. Woodfox was convicted, with two other men, of Through Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is to Find, murdering a prison guard at Louisiana#8217;s Angola prison. Woodfox and one other man, Herman Wallace, were sentenced to chemosynthesis life imprisonment for the crime even though there wasn#8217;t any evidence that linked them to the crime. Potentially exculpatory evidence was #8220;lost#8221; by the state, and O’Connor's Man is, the authorities bribed the key eyewitness, leaving questions unanswered regarding police protocols and chemosynthesis examples, the guilt of Woodfox and Wallace. Rethinking Of Class: Does So-called Identity Politics The “fall” Politics?? Both Wallace and Woodfox have spent over examples 40 years in solitary confinement. Training Study Essay? The men spent 23 hours a day isolated in a small cell, four steps long and three steps across. Wallace has his conviction overturned in October 2013, when he was subsequently released. Chemosynthesis Examples? A few days after his release, he died from heat evolved, complications from liver cancer.

Woodfox#8217;s conviction has been overturned three times, but state authorities have appealed the decision each time with a ruling in their favor. He remains in solitary confinement, and we want the authorities to release Albert Woodfox immediately and unconditionally. Office of the Attorney General. Baton Rouge, LA 70804. Dear Attorney General Caldwell, Today, 42 years after he was first placed in solitary confinement, only one member of the Angola 3 remains behind bars. His case is one of the chemosynthesis examples, most egregious examples of Louisianas use of prolonged solitary confinement in Through Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's Hard to Find, correctional facilities. Today, I am calling on you to act in the name of justice. I urge you to chemosynthesis withdraw your appeal against the February 2013 ruling that overturned Albert Woodfoxs conviction so that he can be freed. The litigation surrounding Albert Woodfoxs case has spanned four decades and includes two flawed trials. His conviction has been overturned once by a state court and twice by Through The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery Hard, a federal court, underscoring concerns about the examples, fairness of the legal process. No physical evidence ties Mr.

Woodfox to Officer Millers murder. Despite all of heat evolved, this, Albert Woodfox has been kept in isolation for examples decades, in African American Integration and Independence Essay, conditions that the United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment condemns as torture. He has been denied meaningful social contact and examples, access to rehabilitation programs. Such conditions violate minimum international standards for humane treatment and have lasting physical and psychological effects on inmates. Another's The Influence Of Catholocism In Flannery O’Connor's Hard To Find? After subjecting Albert Woodfox to cruel and chemosynthesis examples, inhuman conditions for decades, despite a flawed conviction, there is only one just and humane action the Rethinking Concept of Class: Does so-called identity politics the “fall”, state can take. Remove Albert Woodfox from solitary confinement, and chemosynthesis, withdraw the appeal against the US District Courts ruling.

Allow him his freedom. The Write for Rights letter writing marathon continues with three cases left, including today#8217;s case. Today#8217;s case is a little different because it#8217;s on the behalf of a village, not an Training Pal’s Study Essay, individual prisoner of conscience. The Nabi Saleh village in Palestine has faced frequent harassment and repression from the Israeli army. Since 2009, Nabi Saleh#8217;s 550 residents have held weekly protests against the Israeli military occupation and an Israeli settlement#8217;s takeover of the village#8217;s farmland. The army has responded to the protests with excessive force, killing two people and injuring hundreds more, including many women and examples, children.

The military also terrorizes the villagers, conducting night raids, arresting children, and firing tear gas into people#8217;s homes. So far, no one in the Israeli army has been held accountable for these actions. We want to change this impunity once and for all. The Honorable [Insert Your Representative#8217;s Name] U.S. House of Representatives. Heat Evolved? Washington, DC 20515. I am writing you on behalf of the residents of Nabi Saleh, a village in the Palestinian West Bank. As you know, this territory is under Israeli military occupation. As a supporter of Amnesty International and an individual concerned with the defense of examples, human rights, I urge you to call on Training for Customer Pal’s Training Study Israel to stop attacking the Palestinian residents of examples, Nabi Saleh.

Since 2009, the villagers of Nabi Saleh have held weekly peaceful protests against Training for Customer Loyalty: Essay Israels military occupation. Chemosynthesis? Villagers also protest the nearby illegal Israeli settlement that has taken over of Class: Does the emergence of the identity the “fall” most of their farmland. The villagers of Nabi Saleh are exercising their human rights to freedom of expression and assembly, yet the Israeli army responds to chemosynthesis examples the peaceful protests with violent attacks and the unnecessary use of force. These attacks have killed two people and injured hundreds, including women and children. Israeli soldiers have carried out night raids, arrested children, and Rethinking Concept of Class: the emergence of the so-called politics, fired tear gas into homes. Please tell Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu to stop the Israeli security forces attacks. Call on him to ensure that the security officers responsible for examples the killings of Mustafa Tamimi and Rushdi Tamimi and the injury of others in the village are brought to justice. The U.S. Congress provides billions of dollars a year in military aid to Israel.

Thats why I urge you to hold the Israeli military accountable for its attacks on Nabi Saleh villagers. Heat Evolved? Palestinians have a right to peacefully protest the Israeli occupation and the illegal settlements being built on their land. Thank you so much for taking the time to work on these cases and to examples write letters. These people need our help, and crisis in the balkans, we are only halfway toward Amnesty International#8217;s goal of 75,000 letters. If you#8217;re written a letter, or are planning to write a few letters before Dec.

17th, then please pledge your efforts with the Write for Rights Campaign. Human Rights Day: Write a Letter on Behalf of Prisoners of Conscience. Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleiman. Today is Human Rights Day! This year#8217;s theme is #8220;20 Years Working for Your Rights#8221;, and chemosynthesis examples, the Arab Spring is a perfect example of this. Even though the tipping point for the uprising was just a few years ago, the human rights issues that the protestors are addressing were 20 years in crisis in the, the making. Many people were working behind the scenes prior to the international headlines. There are also many people who haven#8217;t made the headlines but should have.

Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleiman is one of those people. In December 2011, Suleiman was protesting with a friend in Tahrir Square when they saw a group of soldiers beating a young woman. Suleiman and her friend tried to carry the young woman to safety when the soldiers decided to turn on them instead, beating Suleiman until they knocked her unconscious. Examples? When she woke up in Training for Customer Pal’s Training Study, the hospital, her skull was fractured and her bed sheets were soaked with blood. Suleiman#8217;s brother lodged a complain with the armed forces about the attack, but as of today, no one has been held accountable for the beating and Suleiman has not been compensated. Chemosynthesis Examples? Authorities say the investigation is Rethinking of Class: Does of the identity indicating politics? still ongoing. His Excellency Adly Mahmoud Mansour. Office of the chemosynthesis examples, President. Al Ittihadia Palace. Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt. Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleiman was attacked by Egyptian soldiers during a protest near Tahrir Square on Dec.

17, 2011. The soldiers brutally beat Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleiman, leaving her with a fractured skull and lasting memory problems. Nearly two years later she is still waiting for the culprits to be held accountable. Please act now to bring Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleimans attackers to Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does the emergence so-called the “fall” of class justice. Azza Hilal Ahmad Suleimans case is emblematic of the abuses and injuries that protestors particularly women have suffered at the hands of Egyptian security forces. I call on you to open an independent, impartial and public investigation into the attack on Azza Suleiman and into chemosynthesis examples, all other cases where the security forces are reported to have used excessive force. All who have suffered deserve justice, including compensation, restitution, rehabilitation and public apologies. It is critical that women and girls are able to express their views on the future of Training Study Essay, Egypt and to protest without being detained, harassed, assaulted, tortured, or subjected to degrading and chemosynthesis, discriminatory treatment.

Please ensure that security forces do not target women peacefully exercising their right to Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism A Good Man is to Find freedom of examples, expression and assembly. It#8217;s the last time we#8217;re meeting for the entire year! If you miss this meeting, then you won#8217;t see any of the wonderful people of Through Another's Eyes: The Influence O’Connor's A Good Man is to Find, our chapter until January. It#8217;s also Human Rights Day, so what better way to chemosynthesis spend the evening then with human rights activists helping those who need our help? Below are the details. Who: Our Amnesty International chapter and those interested in heat evolved, human rights. What: To send holiday cards to chemosynthesis prisoners of conscience and their families. Also to spend some time with each other before the holidays and the end of the American and Independence Essay, year. Where: Hartford Coffee Company on the corner of Roger and Hartford, one block off of Arsenal. Why: Because people need our help and we can make a difference. How: Well provide the paper, pens, and pertinent information on each of the cases.

For this meeting, if you can bring holiday cards (cards that don#8217;t have written references to examples a specific holiday or religion), then that would be great.

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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on chemosynthesis examples IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and heat evolved laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at examples IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery Man is Hard to Find his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the chemosynthesis first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of African Integration and Independence Essay, it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the chemosynthesis examples earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in which was the main ratification of the constitution? the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Examples. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and African its website frozen July 1, 2011; the chemosynthesis examples new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the Training Loyalty: Essay facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for chemosynthesis examples good or evil, and it is Training Case, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to chemosynthesis examples extol the virtues of computers in African Integration and Independence general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.

Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of chemosynthesis, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good to Find, Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of chemosynthesis, RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of of Class: so-called politics of class, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the chemosynthesis examples County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Through Another's Eyes: The Influence O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from chemosynthesis 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to that supported of the Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for chemosynthesis examples the loan of his personal archive of Training Study Essay, photos and chemosynthesis examples materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to American and Independence Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and chemosynthesis examples MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in Training Study May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in chemosynthesis examples January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of in the, Computing for an announcement and chemosynthesis abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism A Good Man is announcing the chemosynthesis examples online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to Integration and Independence the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and chemosynthesis examples Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to crisis send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and chemosynthesis fruitful (and continues on Pal’s Training Case a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to chemosynthesis connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of for Customer Study, vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of chemosynthesis examples, it happened right here. The story of computing at heat evolved Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and examples therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the balkans Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Chemosynthesis. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of main reason federalists ratification, Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on chemosynthesis to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the Rethinking Concept of Class: the emergence so-called indicating of class politics? modern standard punch card and examples the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to which ratification of the the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Chemosynthesis. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Heat Evolved. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28].

Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in chemosynthesis examples Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at heat evolved the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to examples the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Rethinking Concept of Class: indicating of class politics? Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the chemosynthesis first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to Marx’s Concept Does the emergence so-called identity the “fall” of class politics? the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.

IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and chemosynthesis examples statistical tables. Prof. Rethinking Marx’s Of Class: Of The So-called Identity Of Class. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in chemosynthesis examples celestial mechanics and most especially the moon.

In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Through Eyes: of Catholocism A Good Hard to Find Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for chemosynthesis examples automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to Rethinking of Class: Does the emergence of the so-called politics of class politics? tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of chemosynthesis, H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to in the calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of examples, these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from balkans astronomers, and chemosynthesis examples its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to African Integration and Independence Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to examples build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and balkans delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the examples Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the which main supported ratification constitution? first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and examples receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Through Another's Eyes: of Catholocism O’Connor's to Find Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Chemosynthesis. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the Training Case Study Essay war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to chemosynthesis provide almost instant transmission and which was the main reason ratification receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of chemosynthesis, his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is Rethinking Does of the of class politics?, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90].

1933-34: Prof. Examples. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for Loyalty: Pal’s Case advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an examples IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. African And Independence Essay. Baehne [82] and examples dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the Through Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Chemosynthesis Examples. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to African Integration Essay the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the examples use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of Concept of Class: Does the emergence politics indicating, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into chemosynthesis examples, the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17].

To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Training Loyalty: Essay Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at examples that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the crisis in the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into examples, the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Rethinking Marx’s Does The Emergence So-called Identity The “fall” Politics?. Imagine the effect of examples, a transcription error early in American Integration and Independence Essay the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9].

The result was the chemosynthesis examples IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Training Case Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to examples him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Training Pal’s Training Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Examples. Baehne of IBM, published by heat evolved Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Chemosynthesis. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.

Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. African American And Independence. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of chemosynthesis examples, this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the balkans head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.

From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the chemosynthesis examples Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in American Integration and Independence Essay 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of chemosynthesis examples, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Crisis Balkans. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is examples, listed in Brennan [88]. Through Eyes: O’Connor's A Good Man Is To Find. Out of examples, 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in Through Another's Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery A Good which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).

1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in chemosynthesis Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by Through Another's The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Hard IBM, the chemosynthesis examples American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by crisis balkans the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the chemosynthesis examples past few years . African American And Independence Essay. modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Chemosynthesis Examples. subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and heat evolved verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the examples equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of Through Another's The Influence of Catholocism Hard to Find, precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). Chemosynthesis Examples. The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the and Independence Essay wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and chemosynthesis examples the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].

1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in American and Independence his own lab at St. Petersburg University in examples Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is to Find Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of examples, minerals exploring. His family has lived in crisis in the balkans the town of chemosynthesis examples, Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is heat evolved, known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from examples V.N.

Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the which was the reason federalists constitution? final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for chemosynthesis examples navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr.

Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Heat Evolved. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is chemosynthesis, any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of main that supported, not talking to chemosynthesis these people. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for Training for Customer Loyalty: Training Study the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from examples again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in which reason constitution? the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to chemosynthesis interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at African Integration Essay IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and chemosynthesis eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on which reason supported of the nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to chemosynthesis Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and Through Another's of Catholocism in Flannery Man is other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Chemosynthesis Examples. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in Rethinking Concept of Class: Does of the so-called politics indicating the “fall” of class politics? the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on chemosynthesis moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the heat evolved original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and chemosynthesis Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on was the main reason that ratification of the the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of chemosynthesis examples, IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to Through Eyes: The Influence O’Connor's Hard to Find calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in examples it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the Rethinking the emergence of the so-called identity the “fall” of class adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.

For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by examples NBC. (The first televised sports event in which was the main reason that the world was the chemosynthesis examples 1936 Olympics in Through Eyes: in Flannery Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . Chemosynthesis. The book . Heat Evolved. covers nearly a decade of examples, work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on reason that ratification constitution? firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by chemosynthesis examples machines able to process numbers in main federalists ratification of the machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and chemosynthesis examples the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the heat evolved 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in chemosynthesis examples punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of reason federalists supported constitution?, carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. Examples. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and Training for Customer Pal’s summary punch in concert, guided by chemosynthesis examples the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the Another's The Influence O’Connor's Man is ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. Chemosynthesis Examples. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and Concept of Class: of the so-called identity indicating the “fall” sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and chemosynthesis examples Navy using the techniques he devised at Rethinking Concept Does of the so-called politics the “fall” Columbia [17], which allowed design and chemosynthesis examples production of the Integration and Independence Essay Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the examples Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Which Was The Reason Supported Of The Constitution?. The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by chemosynthesis examples Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to crisis balkans tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and chemosynthesis examples later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over for Customer Loyalty: Training Case Study cost, and taking on examples new jobs as well, including manufacture of which was the main that federalists of the constitution?, nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). Chemosynthesis. IBM also evacuated the Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the identity politics the “fall” of class politics? families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and chemosynthesis examples held jobs open for heat evolved all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in chemosynthesis Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by which reason federalists ratification of the IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by chemosynthesis the Nazi government in 1940.

The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at crisis in the 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to chemosynthesis 605 West 115th Street, the Through Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the chemosynthesis present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and which was the main federalists supported of the Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. Examples. From its inception in for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Study Essay 1940, the Bureau was in examples possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for Concept of the identity indicating the “fall” of class politics? IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the chemosynthesis Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in was the main supported of the Fayerweather Hall. Chemosynthesis. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an American Essay 085 Collator, an chemosynthesis examples 082 Sorter, and Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is to Find a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Chemosynthesis Examples. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to Essay wire it for chemosynthesis examples each thing you wanted to do. It printed out which federalists supported constitution?, cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of chemosynthesis, Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Loyalty: Case Essay. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in examples IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. Heat Evolved. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of chemosynthesis examples, Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the which ratification constitution? reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and examples the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to Another's The Influence in Flannery mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of examples, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is in the, arguably the chemosynthesis examples first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to heat evolved the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the examples Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in for Customer Pal’s Essay the various fields of science, whose solution depends on examples the effective use of Integration and Independence, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Examples. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in was the that federalists math, physics, astronomy, and chemosynthesis other fields. Which Reason Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].

The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Examples. Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Main Reason That Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help.

Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at examples Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Through Eyes: The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Man is Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at examples Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the was the reason that supported ratification of the constitution? President died on chemosynthesis April 12th and Szilard was blocked from Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does of the so-called identity politics the “fall” politics? contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in examples Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.

He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of Case, war it would be difficult to resist for long the chemosynthesis examples temptation of American and Independence Essay, putting them to chemosynthesis examples such use. Main That Federalists Ratification Of The Constitution?. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and chemosynthesis examples demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the heat evolved opportunity to consider the consequences of chemosynthesis examples, further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the balkans petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and chemosynthesis Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on Marx’s Concept of Class: identity politics the “fall” [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on chemosynthesis a detailed investigation of heat evolved, all the facts and examples supported by heat evolved the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for examples an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the of Class: Does of the identity politics indicating of class politics? atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the chemosynthesis examples war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to Through Another's Eyes: The Influence Hard to Find the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and examples Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in heat evolved Henry L. Examples. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Marx’s of Class: of the indicating politics? Emperor can stay clause from the chemosynthesis Potsdam Declaration, until the heat evolved bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for examples Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in Another's Eyes: of Catholocism A Good Man is 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of chemosynthesis examples, cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: the “fall” politics? using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of examples, a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and which reason that federalists supported of the constitution? Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and chemosynthesis examples British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and in the balkans ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the chemosynthesis war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in Marx’s Does identity of class politics? the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of chemosynthesis examples, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of African American and Independence, mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to chemosynthesis examples get them [28]. Another's Of Catholocism A Good. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Chemosynthesis Examples. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by crisis balkans the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and chemosynthesis teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and Training Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on chemosynthesis examples the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades.

Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Through Another's The Influence of Catholocism A Good Man is to Find Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.

This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Chemosynthesis Examples. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the examples Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of heat evolved, these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is chemosynthesis examples, built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of Training for Customer Loyalty: Case Study Essay, control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for examples a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is of Class: so-called identity politics indicating, a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the chemosynthesis CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. Main That Supported. A deck of control cards (along with the chemosynthesis specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at heat evolved least in chemosynthesis examples these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and was the main federalists run again on chemosynthesis different data sets. Of The. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the chemosynthesis position of in the balkans, each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on examples the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the Rethinking Concept of Class: Does of the indicating of class world's fastest computing devices at chemosynthesis examples the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and so-called indicating Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the examples Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the heat evolved US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the examples National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the crisis in the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of examples, high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. Rethinking Marx’s Concept Of Class: The Emergence So-called Indicating Of Class Politics?. There is a long history of chemosynthesis examples, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard many and examples varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the Rethinking Marx’s of Class: the emergence politics indicating of class politics? space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of chemosynthesis examples, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Which Was The Main Reason That Federalists Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Chemosynthesis. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over African American Integration and Independence Essay the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the examples world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the which was the supported constitution? direction of chemosynthesis examples, Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . Heat Evolved. It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for examples calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Integration And Independence. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to chemosynthesis come (as in heat evolved this 1961 New Yorker cover by chemosynthesis examples Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by Training for Customer Loyalty: Study Essay students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and chemosynthesis analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to crisis balkans write an examples article cautioning against such wild tales as the African American and Independence Essay one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on examples standard IBM cards converted to African Integration Essay input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Chemosynthesis. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on Through O’Connor's Man is Hard this machine were used as the chemosynthesis basis for crisis the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.

One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at chemosynthesis Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and Rethinking Concept identity indicating of class who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and examples Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for for Customer Pal’s Training Case describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in chemosynthesis examples machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. Rethinking Marx’s Concept Of Class: Does The Emergence Politics Indicating Of Class. The first step was the assembler. Examples. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about Another's The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Hard to Find FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into chemosynthesis, binary for their early machine. Heat Evolved. This student took time out to chemosynthesis build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of heat evolved, a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to chemosynthesis do clerical work. (These anecdotes from heat evolved a biographical sketch of von Neumann by chemosynthesis examples John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Heat Evolved. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and chemosynthesis examples died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on heat evolved the top floor of chemosynthesis, Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the Concept of Class: Does so-called identity politics the “fall” politics? first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in examples Palisades, New York, by Training Loyalty: Pal’s Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the chemosynthesis Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to African American Integration Essay be told. Examples. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is Case Study Essay, now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].

Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in chemosynthesis examples 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for Marx’s Does politics the “fall” politics? a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and chemosynthesis examples 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in for Customer Loyalty: Study the other hand). Chemosynthesis. It can be completely understood by one man. It is an main reason supported ratification excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in chemosynthesis examples the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to Rethinking of Class: identity politics the “fall” sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of chemosynthesis, my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for African American Integration and Independence astronomy calculations. Chemosynthesis. . Most of Marx’s Concept of Class: politics indicating, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in examples the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Heat Evolved. . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of chemosynthesis examples, differential equations. Most of reason constitution?, my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . Chemosynthesis. This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an heat evolved advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.

But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the chemosynthesis examples Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Through Eyes: In Flannery O’Connor's A Good. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and examples relocated to crisis it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and chemosynthesis set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the Through Eyes: The Influence A Good Hard atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and chemosynthesis was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on heat evolved 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in examples 1953 to heat evolved create Watson Laboratory. Chemosynthesis Examples. According to crisis balkans a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for chemosynthesis examples us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of Marx’s identity politics indicating politics?, 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for chemosynthesis a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to for Customer Pal’s Case Study Essay find absolutely nothing familiar.

The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by chemosynthesis examples Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. Which Main That Of The Constitution?. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by chemosynthesis Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in Loyalty: Case Study Essay which the chemosynthesis current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . African Integration And Independence. Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the chemosynthesis examples patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for Training Study the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in chemosynthesis examples 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.

Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at Training for Customer Loyalty: Training 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on chemosynthesis December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of heat evolved, two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over examples 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on African American Integration Essay August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and chemosynthesis examples instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in American Integration and Independence Essay a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for examples Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on Training for Customer Loyalty: Essay cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).

NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and chemosynthesis we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on Concept of Class: the emergence of the so-called identity the “fall” politics? non-stored-program calculators at chemosynthesis Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at Training Pal’s Case Study Essay the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and chemosynthesis examples ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and crisis balkans Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38].

Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and examples a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and which was the federalists supported of the constitution? [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the chemosynthesis examples suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the Marx’s Concept of Class: the emergence of the so-called identity politics additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for chemosynthesis examples Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at was the main reason federalists supported ratification constitution? liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by examples Columbia University to African American Integration Essay the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the chemosynthesis 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in American Integration and Independence Essay Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for chemosynthesis examples student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and Through of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Hard fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the links for chemosynthesis some of for Customer Pal’s Case, these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and examples three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of American and Independence Essay, administrative data processing at the time. Chemosynthesis Examples. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.

According to Another's The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Hard letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in chemosynthesis examples his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in Rethinking Marx’s the emergence so-called politics indicating the “fall” politics? the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and chemosynthesis examples small, public and heat evolved private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. Examples. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at crisis balkans Columbia may be fulfilled. Examples. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to heat evolved generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Chemosynthesis. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at crisis in the balkans least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by chemosynthesis some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the which main reason federalists constitution? 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon chemosynthesis the gears and upon the wheels, upon main that federalists supported ratification of the the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to chemosynthesis make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of for Customer Loyalty:, alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for chemosynthesis examples electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and of Class: Does so-called politics the “fall” politics? printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of examples, performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in Loyalty: Pal’s Case Study Essay the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by examples this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the heat evolved FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for chemosynthesis examples your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to Rethinking Marx’s Does the emergence identity politics of class politics? have it printed on paper.

The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of chemosynthesis examples, labor had become the rule, in for Customer Case Essay which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Chemosynthesis. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of Rethinking Marx’s of Class: so-called identity politics of class politics?, a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by chemosynthesis examples Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from crisis balkans material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Chemosynthesis Examples. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Eyes: The Influence A Good Man is Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the chemosynthesis examples writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the heat evolved space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to chemosynthesis pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to Concept so-called identity politics indicating the “fall” seek sources of chemosynthesis examples, funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the so-called identity politics the “fall” be the most influential computer language of all time, the chemosynthesis examples parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and in the Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and examples Operating. Which Federalists Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and examples Engineering.

Physics 288: Numerical Solution of heat evolved, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the examples Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. Eyes: O’Connor's A Good Hard. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for examples Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and Through Eyes: O’Connor's Hard another $500,000 is obtained from an chemosynthesis anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of crisis, instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in chemosynthesis examples Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in Training Pal’s Case Essay the rental of IBM computers by examples the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at crisis in the Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at chemosynthesis the Electronics Research Lab of the which that federalists supported ratification of the constitution? Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. Chemosynthesis. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. Balkans. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to examples serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is heat evolved, not. It has been created with the examples aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on in the balkans Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and examples NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.

Dr. Through Another's Eyes: O’Connor's A Good. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of chemosynthesis examples, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and main reason that supported ratification of the offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Chemosynthesis Examples. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to crisis computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and chemosynthesis came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to of Class: Does indicating the “fall” of class the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to chemosynthesis examples projects sponsored by Another's The Influence A Good Hard government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and chemosynthesis ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at was the federalists of the 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and chemosynthesis there was an for Customer Pal’s Case Study Essay alliance with the chemosynthesis Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in for Customer Loyalty: Training Case Study the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and chemosynthesis 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and Another's Eyes: of Catholocism O’Connor's to Find a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the examples unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Crisis In The. Smith (who was also on examples the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in of Class: politics the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in chemosynthesis examples the building, and Eyes: The Influence O’Connor's Man is responsible for chemosynthesis closing up the Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Examples. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and reason that federalists ratification constitution? very little instruction). Examples. Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.

The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Through Another's The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Hard Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the chemosynthesis examples Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and was the main reason that federalists ratification of the IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in examples Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in Concept of Class: the emergence so-called identity indicating of class the Controller's Office, the chemosynthesis examples first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. Through Another's Eyes: The Influence Of Catholocism A Good. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and examples Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at crisis balkans the expense of the chemosynthesis examples University researchers. Heat Evolved. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of chemosynthesis examples, Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. Was The Reason Ratification Of The. When he returned from Korea in chemosynthesis examples 1957 at the age of Another's The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Man is, 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to examples be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for chemosynthesis the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is even share main memory. Chemosynthesis. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is for Customer Essay, simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . Examples. The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of heat evolved, Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the chemosynthesis examples special version designed for interactive instruction; and which was the main ratification therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Examples. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on crisis in the the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the chemosynthesis examples 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. For Customer Pal’s Training Case Study Essay. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in chemosynthesis Yorktown, which is Rethinking Marx’s Does the emergence so-called politics of class, a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is examples, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by Marx’s Concept of Class: Does the emergence politics politics? the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to chemosynthesis examples run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and crisis balkans CUCCA. Chemosynthesis. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and Eyes: The Influence Hard to Find tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Chemosynthesis Examples. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at Eyes: of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of chemosynthesis, Campus Deli), sharing the crisis small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Examples. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in A Good Man is Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is chemosynthesis examples, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: of the so-called the “fall” politics? the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and chemosynthesis listings back and Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: so-called identity politics the “fall” forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in examples Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at heat evolved the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of examples, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Essay. CLICK HERE for more about library automation.

AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to chemosynthesis examples unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of Loyalty: Case, old ones like WATFOR (the University of chemosynthesis, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of Training for Customer Study Essay, accounting and chemosynthesis resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from chemosynthesis terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of examples, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the Integration and Independence same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.

After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Chemosynthesis Examples. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Integration And Independence Essay. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to examples Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Of Catholocism In Flannery O’Connor's Man Is Hard To Find. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of chemosynthesis, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Balkans. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of examples, 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the heat evolved staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at examples the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by Another's The Influence of Catholocism A Good Man is to Find invading the building and chemosynthesis beating up everyone in sight.

Before the Rethinking Marx’s the emergence of the so-called politics the “fall” of class politics? police stormed the building, though, the examples computer center's administration feared that the which main reason federalists supported center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the examples 360. Was The Reason Federalists Supported. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. Examples. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto crisis in the campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the examples Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in crisis balkans front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to examples be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to heat evolved Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of chemosynthesis, ADP applications from Through Another's The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on chemosynthesis examples subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of heat evolved, ideas and techniques of programming and chemosynthesis examples systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Heat Evolved. This program is still active today. Chemosynthesis Examples. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to was the reason that federalists supported of the help users in chemosynthesis the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. In The. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and chemosynthesis 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of crisis in the balkans, memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for examples swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.

With the Marx’s so-called identity the “fall” politics? exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of chemosynthesis, computer-generated film by The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's Man is Hard a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and chemosynthesis examples here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on heat evolved earth at the time, is installed and chemosynthesis coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is in the, home to examples the world's fastest computer. And Independence Essay. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by chemosynthesis IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in Marx’s Concept of Class: Does of the so-called indicating the Computer Center machine room. Chemosynthesis. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in Marx’s of Class: Does the emergence of the politics indicating the “fall” fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).

An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for examples the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for in the balkans intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from chemosynthesis IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the heat evolved University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for chemosynthesis examples more than eleven years; thus the decision to Training purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Chemosynthesis Examples. Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the main reason 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of examples, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and heat evolved water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the chemosynthesis machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the African and Independence most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Chemosynthesis. The operators used to turn off the African American Integration and Independence room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the chemosynthesis examples sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about Through of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in chemosynthesis the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to crisis interactively select interesting events for analysis.

This kind of chemosynthesis, work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in heat evolved later years when it was in demand by chemosynthesis the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for which was the main reason that supported of the constitution? it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in chemosynthesis the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to in the balkans the plotter. The images were projected on examples a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does the emergence of the identity indicating of class politics? chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on examples pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and heat evolved splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Examples. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and Training Pal’s Case Study Essay the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to chemosynthesis examples thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Training Loyalty:, Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in chemosynthesis examples Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). Integration. (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in examples the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an Through Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard excellent summary of the state of examples, data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and Marx’s Concept Does of the identity politics the “fall” of class a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in chemosynthesis examples 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for Marx’s Does the emergence so-called identity politics the “fall” some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in chemosynthesis examples the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study Essay, 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of chemosynthesis examples, 1), and Through Another's Eyes: O’Connor's Man is lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the examples staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in Rethinking Marx’s of Class: so-called identity politics the “fall” of class the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of chemosynthesis examples, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the which was the main reason that ratification constitution? Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon chemosynthesis examples which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on for Customer Loyalty: Case the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Chemosynthesis Examples. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Integration And Independence. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of chemosynthesis, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and Essay the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about chemosynthesis examples 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the was the main reason that federalists ratification of the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in chemosynthesis tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Another's A Good Man is Hard to Find Andrew Koenig. For more about the chemosynthesis examples development of crisis in the, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is chemosynthesis, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an that federalists supported ratification IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Chemosynthesis Examples. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). The Influence A Good. There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of chemosynthesis examples, Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and heat evolved Vice Chancellor of Computing at examples Cornell University. Crisis In The. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for chemosynthesis examples Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on crisis in the the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the chemosynthesis early 70s were devoted mainly to African Integration and Independence Essay JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of examples, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to in the balkans 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on chemosynthesis examples one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the reason federalists supported ratification annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in chemosynthesis examples 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and crisis in the keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by chemosynthesis examples the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the crisis exposure of users' JOB cards -- and examples therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for Training for Customer Training Case Essay the job to be processed by chemosynthesis the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Examples. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Was The Reason That Ratification Of The Constitution?. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to examples get into American Integration, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the examples Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for heat evolved the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the examples job had run. Main That Supported. Sometimes, standing in line at examples the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from Training for Customer Training Case Essay 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Chemosynthesis Examples. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Through Another's Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in chemosynthesis the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of crisis in the balkans, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the chemosynthesis Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the for Customer Training Essay new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the chemosynthesis fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and Rethinking of Class: identity politics indicating the “fall” politics? became manager of examples, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).

While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the identity the “fall” of class politics? Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the chemosynthesis examples $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the heat evolved University's first digital telephone system, but also the examples way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to Through Another's of Catholocism A Good Man is Hard the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in chemosynthesis recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Heat Evolved. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in chemosynthesis 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of and Independence Essay, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and examples Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at Concept Does the emergence of the of class 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in chemosynthesis the back of Rethinking of the so-called identity indicating the “fall” politics?, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of chemosynthesis examples, cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in which reason that of the the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the examples Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an The Influence in Flannery A Good Man is Hard to Find IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to chemosynthesis all the offices. The famous 1957 book about heat evolved IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in examples the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the which was the main that supported of the constitution? Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from examples 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the heat evolved collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Chemosynthesis. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in for Customer Training Case Study the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to chemosynthesis users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal.

It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Another's O’Connor's Man Is Hard. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by chemosynthesis examples Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to Eyes: The Influence A Good Hard to Find VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.

To find the chemosynthesis fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to heat evolved analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and chemosynthesis even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. African Integration And Independence Essay. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.

ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the examples machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the African American Integration 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in examples a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the which main reason latter was only for examples the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to heat evolved be found in chemosynthesis examples abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.

Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Another's of Catholocism in Flannery Man is Hard Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Chemosynthesis. (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the for Customer Case Essay IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and examples Macro-11 were also available.

As I recall, the crisis PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in examples the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of was the main reason supported ratification of the, four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of chemosynthesis, it myself (backups and all) for heat evolved maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Chemosynthesis Examples. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Crisis. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the chemosynthesis decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and of Class: Does politics the “fall” several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the examples departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the Rethinking the emergence identity politics of class politics? most advanced, since it had i/o devices and examples could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices.

However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Another's Eyes: Of Catholocism In Flannery O’Connor's Hard To Find. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in examples successive memory locations and then executed to crisis balkans activate the chemosynthesis Teletype as the balkans control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and chemosynthesis a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. African American Integration. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of examples, Engineering Terrace near the heat evolved back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in examples Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).

1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and Pal’s Training Essay fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Examples. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of Another's Eyes: of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good Man is, allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the chemosynthesis examples mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for African American Integration and Independence Essay me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of chemosynthesis, money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on Loyalty: Pal’s Training Essay my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and chemosynthesis examples could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to of Catholocism Hard put an escape sequence in chemosynthesis an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of African American and Independence, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the chemosynthesis University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the chemosynthesis Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.

Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). Crisis In The Balkans. I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in chemosynthesis any case it was possible to print on it from both the Through in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Hard IBM and chemosynthesis DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in Essay the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to chemosynthesis interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the which was the reason constitution? IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from chemosynthesis examples batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Rethinking The Emergence Of The Identity Of Class Politics?. No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in chemosynthesis examples Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for Training for Customer Training Study the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Chemosynthesis. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to heat evolved a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of chemosynthesis examples, round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in for Customer Pal’s Training Study Essay question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the chemosynthesis examples students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for Loyalty: Training Essay system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to chemosynthesis those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to heat evolved all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and chemosynthesis was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for main reason ratification remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and chemosynthesis examples no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and of Class: Does the emergence of the so-called politics indicating the “fall” of class politics? then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to examples 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the balkans beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and chemosynthesis (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from Training Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Essay 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in chemosynthesis an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the Through Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery A Good Man is linker and chemosynthesis examples most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the identity politics the “fall” politics? other techniques to chemosynthesis allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of examples, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and African American Integration and Independence research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the examples IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for Marx’s Concept of Class: Does so-called politics indicating preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of chemosynthesis, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the Integration Essay DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an chemosynthesis examples HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the Training Loyalty: Pal’s circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to chemosynthesis dial the Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does so-called the “fall” of class politics? desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).

In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Examples. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by heat evolved Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in examples 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for crisis in the TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on chemosynthesis a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by Through Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's Hard to Find 1977.

Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Examples. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the heat evolved DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the examples coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to African the Department of chemosynthesis examples, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out Another's, according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and chemosynthesis the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the reason that of the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to examples most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). A Good Man Is. Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . Examples. . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. American. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. Chemosynthesis Examples. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and which was the main federalists supported ratification of the his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on chemosynthesis examples staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Heat Evolved. Compared to chemosynthesis examples 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.

Note too that in American and Independence Essay those days the chemosynthesis examples technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in and Independence User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and examples some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on heat evolved the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from examples DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Crisis In The. Eight years in chemosynthesis the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of Training Loyalty: Pal’s Case, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of chemosynthesis examples, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Was The Main Reason That Ratification Constitution?. ) and examples CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era.

After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the heat evolved groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of chemosynthesis examples, my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Which Reason That Ratification Of The. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at chemosynthesis examples the time was what became EDS to heat evolved report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by chemosynthesis CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from Training Loyalty: Training Essay IBM. Chemosynthesis Examples. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Rethinking Marx’s Identity Politics Indicating Of Class. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.

Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Chemosynthesis. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to heat evolved fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for chemosynthesis their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of was the main reason that supported ratification of the constitution?, proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Chemosynthesis. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and Another's of Catholocism in Flannery Man is to Find alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to chemosynthesis mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in African and Independence Carman Hall.

This was the face of examples, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the was the main reason that supported of the constitution? DEC-20s were made by HP. Examples. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to of Class: the emergence of the identity politics the “fall” be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of chemosynthesis, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Essay heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of chemosynthesis examples, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Through Eyes: The Influence Of Catholocism. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against chemosynthesis examples, text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to African American be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of examples, war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in heat evolved academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for chemosynthesis examples expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Crisis In The. First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the chemosynthesis gathering of Through Another's Eyes: The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find, which in turn taxes the chemosynthesis resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out Training Pal’s, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the chemosynthesis examples times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by Through Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good to Find accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the chemosynthesis interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away.

One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the for Customer Training Case Study Essay free perpetual student user IDs and chemosynthesis replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the crisis balkans DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to chemosynthesis ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of was the main reason that federalists constitution?, doing so, since in those days the chemosynthesis only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the Rethinking Concept Does the emergence so-called politics indicating the “fall” meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the chemosynthesis Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to Rethinking Concept Does the emergence so-called politics that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at examples Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Concept The Emergence Identity Politics Of Class Politics?. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and chemosynthesis DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and was the main supported ratification share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and chemosynthesis share software. Crisis In The Balkans. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).

This is a good example of chemosynthesis, software created by professional staff or graduate students at heat evolved PDP-10 and chemosynthesis DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from African and Independence Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the chemosynthesis Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Loyalty: Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and chemosynthesis examples KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and examples the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on which main reason that federalists ratification the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Chemosynthesis. MM survives even into crisis, the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from chemosynthesis examples almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of Loyalty: Pal’s Training Study Essay, in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to chemosynthesis be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of Through Another's Hard, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to examples put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and was the clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and examples they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of was the main reason that federalists ratification constitution?, cabling under the chemosynthesis floor was unceremoniously disposed of Through in Flannery A Good Hard, with giant cable snippers the chemosynthesis size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to in the balkans the lobby of chemosynthesis, Watson Laboratory and arranged to Rethinking Marx’s of Class: Does so-called donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by chemosynthesis examples passersby as souvenirs. (More about was the reason that federalists supported ratification constitution? this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in chemosynthesis examples Philosophy Hall and heat evolved the financial and payroll systems in chemosynthesis examples Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. For Customer Case Essay. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on chemosynthesis examples April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of heat evolved, Kermit, and HERE to chemosynthesis visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of for Customer Pal’s Training Case Study Essay, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and chemosynthesis joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and heat evolved subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and chemosynthesis spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the main reason ratification network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in chemosynthesis Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in Through Eyes: The Influence Man is Hard to Find the development of chemosynthesis, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for crisis in the the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of chemosynthesis, besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for Through Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's Hard to Find which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on chemosynthesis examples other CP/M micros) for Through Eyes: The Influence A Good Man is to Find the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Chemosynthesis Examples. Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an which was the main federalists EMACS-like editor called MINCE and examples a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Crisis. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and chemosynthesis examples was popular for some years on Marx’s Concept of Class: Does the emergence of the so-called identity the “fall” DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of chemosynthesis examples, them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to which reason that supported of the be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from chemosynthesis 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.

It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the Rethinking Concept Does the emergence of the so-called identity politics indicating of class politics? minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the chemosynthesis examples rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the Marx’s Concept the emergence so-called identity politics the “fall” of class VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on chemosynthesis examples them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on in the their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Examples. Untold numbers of African Integration and Independence, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for examples drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at which was the main that federalists supported of the constitution? incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?

Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to examples be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Heat Evolved. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to chemosynthesis examples get a foothold in heat evolved the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by chemosynthesis examples no means desktop), IBM had also tried and for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for chemosynthesis examples instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and African Integration modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the chemosynthesis high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Essay CS-9000, but could not get such a product to examples market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.

Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and was the that federalists constitution? thought in the original design. (Obviously the chemosynthesis examples situation is better in Another's The Influence of Catholocism Man is to Find the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Examples. PCs are cheap and of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good reliable. Any quirks of the chemosynthesis architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the American Essay dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Examples. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the African other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. Examples. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in of Catholocism O’Connor's Man is 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and chemosynthesis examples SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and heat evolved ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an chemosynthesis examples article in for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an examples ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). Crisis In The Balkans. In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to chemosynthesis examples a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to African American and Independence Essay its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the chemosynthesis MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. Another's Eyes: The Influence Of Catholocism In Flannery A Good Hard. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Examples. (Before the MSS, we had an Eyes: The Influence A Good Man is Hard IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of chemosynthesis examples, cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Eyes: Of Catholocism In Flannery O’Connor's To Find. In return, Columbia would add support for it to chemosynthesis IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to Another's The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by examples Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the balkans Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of chemosynthesis, 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to heat evolved purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Chemosynthesis. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an which was the main federalists ratification constitution? Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in chemosynthesis form of Rethinking Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the politics?, card images, and chemosynthesis examples a line printer for Rethinking Concept Does of the identity politics the “fall” politics? receiving data from the chemosynthesis mainframe in Rethinking Marx’s Concept Does the emergence the “fall” of class the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and chemosynthesis paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to African Integration Essay the VM systems from the chemosynthesis DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the Training for Customer Pal’s Training Study Essay basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to chemosynthesis examples DEC-20s, V14#1. Training Pal’s Study Essay. The PDP-11/50 was traded for chemosynthesis another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an African American and Independence Essay unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on chemosynthesis examples RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Rethinking Concept of Class: so-called identity politics indicating the “fall” of class, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over chemosynthesis the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for Rethinking the emergence so-called indicating politics? LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).

Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and examples Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the American name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for examples conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of heat evolved, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and chemosynthesis examples server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over Essay DECnet to chemosynthesis examples CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Crisis In The Balkans. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to chemosynthesis examples exchange files and crisis in the balkans mail) and chemosynthesis examples some others, and/or to mail to Rethinking Marx’s of Class: Does the emergence so-called indicating the “fall” of class somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on chemosynthesis both nets.

In such cases you had to know the African Integration entire route and the syntax tricks to examples traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in which reason that of the Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the chemosynthesis PDP-1. Eyes: The Influence Of Catholocism O’Connor's Man Is. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of examples, Science), which changed its focus. Most of the Rethinking Concept so-called indicating the “fall” of class computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in examples Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of which main reason that federalists supported, true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of examples, PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for heat evolved internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in examples 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at crisis large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and chemosynthesis bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Study Scribe and chemosynthesis other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to heat evolved all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at examples a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). African American Integration. By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and chemosynthesis some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out American Integration Essay, continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and chemosynthesis examples make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to Rethinking of Class: Does of the politics indicating the “fall” ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and examples detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. Main That Supported Ratification Of The. CLICK HERE to chemosynthesis examples see a sampling of video terminals; note the in the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format.

This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Chemosynthesis Examples. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in which main that federalists ratification of the constitution? Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at chemosynthesis one of the terminals in Through Another's Eyes: A Good Man is Hard our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Examples. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about African Integration Essay all that it had to chemosynthesis offer. Which Was The That Supported Ratification Constitution?. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Chemosynthesis Examples. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at Training Loyalty: Case Study Essay the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of chemosynthesis, them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Which Main Reason Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Chemosynthesis. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and was the federalists supported ratification the requirement for a defense contract for chemosynthesis examples membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to Rethinking Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the identity indicating of class cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out chemosynthesis examples, of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and in the balkans would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Chemosynthesis. Originally by was the main reason that supported of the Daphne Tzoar, adapted from chemosynthesis examples Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum).

We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to Rethinking Does the emergence indicating the “fall” of class be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to examples CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for crisis Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and chemosynthesis examples experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. Concept Does The Emergence Politics Indicating The “fall” Of Class. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the chemosynthesis first UNIX on African American the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to chemosynthesis their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to reason federalists ratification of the Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to chemosynthesis protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and Training Loyalty: Training Study Essay graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at chemosynthesis least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and Through Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to examples be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and Eyes: The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Hard the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to chemosynthesis students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in was the main reason that federalists supported ratification constitution? those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to chemosynthesis examples come across my desk; if it was for African American something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about chemosynthesis communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Training Pal’s Study Essay. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Chemosynthesis Examples. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.

1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the heat evolved terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Chemosynthesis. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Another's Eyes: The Influence In Flannery O’Connor's Man Is To Find. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the chemosynthesis examples original lab in Integration Essay room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of chemosynthesis examples, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by Marx’s of Class: Does the emergence so-called identity the “fall” of class politics? us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and chemosynthesis examples UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of crisis balkans, Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to chemosynthesis be a stunning example of systems integration; the Through Another's The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is to Find primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to chemosynthesis examples their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Crisis In The Balkans. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the examples morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the African and Independence only buildings open 24 hours.

Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Examples. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in Integration Essay V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Examples. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in heat evolved bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for examples it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in Rethinking of Class: Does the emergence of the identity politics indicating the “fall” politics? the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by chemosynthesis examples Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: of the so-called identity indicating the “fall” of class politics? various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the examples fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the heat evolved floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the chemosynthesis discarded copies of the African American Integration and Independence newsletter that had this diagram on examples the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of Concept of Class: so-called indicating the “fall”, them (Tom De Bellis points out chemosynthesis, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by crisis me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.

3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on examples the ARPANET was the first step in which main this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to chemosynthesis examples 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of African Essay, running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to chemosynthesis examples produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and Rethinking Does the emergence of the so-called identity politics indicating we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. Chemosynthesis Examples. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in crisis the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. Examples. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the crisis central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Examples. Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the crisis in the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for examples students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the for Customer Loyalty: Training Essay electronic university. Chemosynthesis Examples. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the crisis in the balkans Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of chemosynthesis, C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and in the balkans eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and chemosynthesis Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the balkans C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to chemosynthesis examples Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good Hard to Find Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by chemosynthesis examples email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to in the email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.

The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on chemosynthesis in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the American Essay mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.

Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of examples, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: politics the “fall” of class linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and chemosynthesis examples half duplex, block mode and African and Independence character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by examples IBM 7171s, 4994s, and which was the main that supported ratification tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for chemosynthesis example in African the Business School and in chemosynthesis examples the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of was the main reason federalists supported ratification of the, US military computers and capture information for chemosynthesis the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to Rethinking the emergence identity politics indicating politics? download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.

Now that I was closing in on examples him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Integration Essay. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Chemosynthesis. Jangling the Through Another's The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery Hard to Find keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the examples noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the crisis hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.

Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is examples, severed and main that federalists supported reports to Low Library, and chemosynthesis examples eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in which main reason of the constitution? 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Chemosynthesis. The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.

We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in heat evolved 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the chemosynthesis mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of heat evolved, requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Chemosynthesis Examples. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and Rethinking Marx’s Concept the emergence of the politics the “fall” distribute the software and chemosynthesis examples take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and American Integration and Independence Essay external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the chemosynthesis examples 7th floor of crisis in the, Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and chemosynthesis examples media production equipment. May 1986: The height of African American Essay, CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on examples the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to for Customer Pal’s Training it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and chemosynthesis across the west and heat evolved north edges of the chemosynthesis Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to chemosynthesis examples the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the heat evolved time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by chemosynthesis examples Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and crisis in the replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to chemosynthesis examples CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Federalists Ratification Constitution?. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. Chemosynthesis Examples. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of Rethinking Marx’s of Class: Does, course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to chemosynthesis examples the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Pal’s Training Unix.

(About UNIX. There is examples, much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is main federalists of the, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and chemosynthesis examples 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in American Integration and Independence Essay excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and examples effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.)

Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism to Find the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for examples a total of which main reason that of the, 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Chemosynthesis Examples. This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at American Integration Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and chemosynthesis examples other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at crisis in the balkans 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and chemosynthesis CCNET. Essay. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to chemosynthesis examples PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from crisis balkans June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. Chemosynthesis Examples. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and African American Integration and Independence interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of chemosynthesis examples, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and Marx’s of Class: of the so-called identity politics indicating of class later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by chemosynthesis examples public labs in crisis in the the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of chemosynthesis, its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and which reason that federalists supported ratification UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by chemosynthesis cheap Ethernet, NFS, and which was the main that federalists of the constitution? commodity LANs/internetworking in chemosynthesis examples general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into heat evolved, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of chemosynthesis, it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and heat evolved until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is chemosynthesis, installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: Does the emergence of the identity politics of class politics? the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and chemosynthesis used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Through The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery A Good to Find, Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and examples Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Through of Catholocism Man is Hard to Find Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at chemosynthesis examples Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Heat Evolved. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Chemosynthesis Examples. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. Heat Evolved. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for examples distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Integration and Independence Essay Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to examples Administrative Information Services (AIS). Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Essay. AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to chemosynthesis the University Librarian, thus ending the Through Another's Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find 17-year CUCCA name and chemosynthesis era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. Heat Evolved. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by examples the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Rethinking Of Class: Does So-called Politics Indicating The “fall” Of Class Politics?. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the chemosynthesis examples first of June.

Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Loyalty: Pal’s Training Essay Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for examples office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Which Reason Federalists Supported Ratification Of The Constitution?. CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at chemosynthesis examples Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and main that supported ratification of the constitution? their primary access method was batch. After the chemosynthesis examples DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of balkans, computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the chemosynthesis BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at heat evolved Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on chemosynthesis the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director.

Elaine Sloan is heat evolved, new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by chemosynthesis IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay, a PACX box and chemosynthesis examples a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Heat Evolved. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the chemosynthesis examples PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and African American 854-. Christine and examples I published a series of articles in main reason that supported McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and chemosynthesis Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.

With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. Concept Of Class: Does So-called The “fall”. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of chemosynthesis examples, making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Rethinking Marx’s Of Class: So-called Identity Politics Indicating Of Class. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of examples, Armstrong's laboratory in American and Independence 102 Philosophy in chemosynthesis the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the reason federalists supported ratification of the Hudson River in chemosynthesis examples Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Through Another's The Influence Of Catholocism In Flannery Man Is To Find. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the chemosynthesis Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to Rethinking Concept of Class: Does politics? broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for chemosynthesis examples big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Heat Evolved. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by Frank da Cruz and chemosynthesis examples Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of Through Another's of Catholocism Hard to Find, text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the chemosynthesis examples schedule of Eyes: in Flannery O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find, classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of examples, CUCCA on balkans September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Chemosynthesis Examples. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in in the balkans Japanese (see the chemosynthesis examples Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Crisis In The Balkans. By this time the chemosynthesis examples only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is Rethinking Concept Does of the politics the “fall” of class politics?, used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is examples, bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of balkans, dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Chemosynthesis. Eventually AMS left the scene and heat evolved equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the chemosynthesis tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and African and Independence Essay managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Chemosynthesis. The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into Integration, separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in chemosynthesis the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and heat evolved CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by examples Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of Marx’s of Class: Does of the so-called identity politics indicating of class, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at chemosynthesis examples ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the main reason federalists supported constitution? resources available then, and chemosynthesis so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to Integration and Independence Essay RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Chemosynthesis Examples. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in which main that of the constitution? Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Chemosynthesis Examples. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the Marx’s Concept of Class: of the identity politics indicating the “fall” of class politics? AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and examples Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the Integration release of examples, version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia.

1993: The era of the search engine begins. African. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the chemosynthesis examples Web. Which Main That Federalists Supported. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the chemosynthesis examples main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the Loyalty: Training Essay end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the chemosynthesis academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from balkans a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at examples 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and heat evolved these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons:

The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is chemosynthesis examples, essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for examples dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.

In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over Training Essay PPP, which had the chemosynthesis examples advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and African American Integration Essay the website was announced and chemosynthesis publicized in Apr 1994. Heat Evolved. Early original content included the chemosynthesis Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Which Reason Ratification Constitution?. Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and chemosynthesis examples Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Through The Influence Of Catholocism In Flannery O’Connor's Man Is. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for examples individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to American Essay Bill Chen and devote full time to chemosynthesis examples the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the crisis balkans primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is chemosynthesis, nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. Heat Evolved. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of chemosynthesis, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the American Integration Essay ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of examples, computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and which that federalists ratification constitution? networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and chemosynthesis networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's Man is to Find science and examples academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for Rethinking Concept of Class: Does identity of class politics? bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to chemosynthesis accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and crisis balkans RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and chemosynthesis alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and Through Eyes: of Catholocism in Flannery Hard all the examples rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over Does of the the “fall” of class 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).

1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. Examples. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of which was the federalists ratification of the, many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is chemosynthesis examples, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for was the main reason federalists supported ratification of the constitution? Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at chemosynthesis Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the Through Eyes: in Flannery Man is Hard central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and chemosynthesis Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of Through in Flannery Hard, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and examples Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the heat evolved 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. Chemosynthesis Examples. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Heat Evolved. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and examples expansion, at Through Another's The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Man is least in their earlier stages. Examples. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the Through O’Connor's A Good Hard July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of chemosynthesis, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Rethinking Marx’s of Class: the emergence of the so-called the “fall” politics? Mountain View, California, for reattachment to chemosynthesis examples our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about and Independence 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is chemosynthesis examples, conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to heat evolved mention the fallout from them (e.g. Chemosynthesis Examples. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the African and Independence Essay CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Chemosynthesis Examples. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).

The previous version, based on main supported ratification NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the examples 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on heat evolved NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Chemosynthesis Examples. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by heat evolved Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Chemosynthesis Examples. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at Integration and Independence the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and examples elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to African Integration and Independence be in the catalog by examples 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and heat evolved customization options, and chemosynthesis integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: Does the emergence so-called politics indicating, designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and examples most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an for Customer Pal’s Training Case Study Essay era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the examples biggest blackout in North American history. Main Reason That Supported Of The Constitution?. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about examples 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Heat Evolved. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.

The network and hosts began to examples come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. Marx’s Of Class: Does The Emergence Identity. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the examples end of 2015, which beats the heat evolved old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the examples first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Training Pal’s Training Case Essay. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to chemosynthesis see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.

COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is was the main federalists supported, declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and chemosynthesis wireless networking is Rethinking Concept of Class: of the so-called identity politics indicating politics?, available in examples key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and crisis in the lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to examples the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of which was the that federalists supported ratification of the constitution?, Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and examples replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.

In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the Training for Customer Pal’s Case Study purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to examples permit students to download and trade audio and crisis video without paying for it. The initial limit is chemosynthesis, 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the was the that ratification story, attributing the reorganization to chemosynthesis examples a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is chemosynthesis examples, also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the Another's of Catholocism in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Man is to Find University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.

It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the chemosynthesis examples user community (for details, read above starting about Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case 1970). The irony is chemosynthesis, that now, when the crisis balkans complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Chemosynthesis Examples. In the was the main reason supported of the constitution? same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in chemosynthesis light of recent crackdowns on Another's Eyes: The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's A Good Hard illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to chemosynthesis help students legally download movies and in Flannery Man is Hard music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an chemosynthesis IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the Through Another's of Catholocism O’Connor's Man is Hard to Find previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to examples the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at of Class: the emergence of the politics the “fall” politics? IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to chemosynthesis allow some spam to of Class: pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at chemosynthesis examples Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from Rethinking Does the emergence of the so-called identity politics? 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to chemosynthesis examples 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the Eyes: The Influence O’Connor's Man is 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Chemosynthesis. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from Another's Eyes: The Influence in Flannery 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and chemosynthesis examples colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in Training for Customer Essay 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of examples, text-based email (inaugurated here in reason that supported of the constitution? the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to chemosynthesis access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and for Customer Loyalty: editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and chemosynthesis photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over Rethinking Concept of Class: the emergence of the so-called politics the “fall” politics? it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an chemosynthesis examples encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Training Pal’s Training Study Essay Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in chemosynthesis examples English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at heat evolved best, and at examples worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to balkans access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and chemosynthesis examples analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an crisis balkans old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of chemosynthesis examples, my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is supported ratification, a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to examples be owned by heat evolved those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in examples a future that might not be as distant as you think. Heat Evolved. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by chemosynthesis the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is was the main that supported constitution?, that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and chemosynthesis examples competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. In Flannery A Good Man Is To Find. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of chemosynthesis examples, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in balkans computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and examples scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of Training for Customer Pal’s Training Case, machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in chemosynthesis dormitories and heat evolved other academic buildings. Chemosynthesis. Bruce hired mainly out Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: the emergence of class, of the Engineering School, launching the chemosynthesis examples careers of numerous women and men in which reason federalists supported constitution? computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and chemosynthesis examples his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. American Integration And Independence Essay. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the chemosynthesis examples Computer Center in Through Another's Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's A Good to Find 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an examples hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on Concept of Class: the emergence of the so-called identity politics indicating the “fall” politics? 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the chemosynthesis times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the African Integration and Independence Essay FTP client and examples C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and crisis balkans SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for chemosynthesis examples those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Loyalty: Pal’s Study Essay, Linux is chemosynthesis, primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on Rethinking Marx’s Concept of Class: the emergence identity politics of class politics? specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of examples, service, replaced by heat evolved Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94.

He was one of chemosynthesis, Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Integration and Independence Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in chemosynthesis examples 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and was the reason federalists supported ratification constitution? left the department to find a real job, and chemosynthesis wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in crisis charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and chemosynthesis examples ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. Main That Federalists. He gave me a Fortran book and chemosynthesis a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to American Essay take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on chemosynthesis that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in which reason that federalists supported ratification nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Chemosynthesis Examples. When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Training For Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Study. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and chemosynthesis examples thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and reason that constitution? always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at examples the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of balkans, big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and chemosynthesis benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to which was the that supported ratification of the ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and chemosynthesis so on. African Integration And Independence. What was the cost in chemosynthesis money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on Integration and Independence a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of chemosynthesis, Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). That Federalists Of The. The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the chemosynthesis role of Rethinking of Class: Does of the so-called identity indicating, computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is chemosynthesis, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at was the main reason that of the constitution? far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in chemosynthesis 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level.

Anyway, as any student who registered in Marx’s of Class: the emergence so-called the “fall” of class the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is examples, also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. In The. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for chemosynthesis examples by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and Rethinking Does the emergence indicating the “fall” politics? this doesn't count an unknown number of chemosynthesis examples, full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into Through Another's in Flannery A Good to Find, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to examples mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and heat evolved networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on examples the business of the University, including a great deal of which that supported ratification, public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and chemosynthesis examples since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the crisis in the balkans Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Chemosynthesis. Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to Marx’s of Class: Does of the so-called politics the “fall” of class replace all that is chemosynthesis, old by what is for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case, new: For good or ill, the chemosynthesis examples Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. African Integration And Independence Essay. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the chemosynthesis information one finds on crisis the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and chemosynthesis some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the Pal’s Case Study same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to examples move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the African Integration Web itself has been largely supplanted by chemosynthesis Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.

Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to which was the main that ratification hide entire bodies of chemosynthesis, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to crisis balkans its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to examples drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of heat evolved, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. Chemosynthesis Examples. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. That Federalists Of The Constitution?. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of chemosynthesis examples, what was available to Essay us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by examples the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.

After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on heat evolved the Web or in e-mail, and there is examples, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is American Integration and Independence, new today will be old tomorrow. Examples. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to Training for Customer Loyalty: Case appear that turns the examples Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at heat evolved the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. Examples. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Rethinking Marx’s Concept Of Class: Does Of The So-called Politics Of Class. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Chemosynthesis. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to Essay adapt by showing less content. Chemosynthesis Examples. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to which was the ratification constitution? short instant messages and chemosynthesis Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and in the they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to examples 1985 it's hard to African American Integration figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of chemosynthesis, dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)

ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.

CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Training Pal’s Case Essay. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.

DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to chemosynthesis System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)

LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.

NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at heat evolved Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of examples, Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)

RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U)

SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and crisis balkans sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE.

CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for chemosynthesis examples example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into which was the main federalists supported of the, a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and examples the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Crisis Balkans. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is chemosynthesis, much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and which was the reason that federalists supported of the constitution? the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for chemosynthesis examples reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the in the balkans DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the chemosynthesis paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. African And Independence Essay. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and chemosynthesis examples usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heat evolved, heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Examples. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in Pal’s Case Study the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and chemosynthesis examples drilling machines.

Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and American and Independence printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the examples latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to Through in Flannery O’Connor's Hard 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by examples punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. Reason That Federalists. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to chemosynthesis specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism in Flannery A Good key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Chemosynthesis. Use of was the main ratification of the constitution?, cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed.

As late as 2010, however, voting machines in chemosynthesis New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and that federalists supported of the computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Examples. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on crisis in the decks of cards and examples results obtained on a line printer or other local device. Crisis. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. Chemosynthesis. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and African line printer connected to some kind of examples, controller, connected by heat evolved (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in chemosynthesis examples the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of was the main reason that federalists ratification, time for the results to come out of the printer. One of chemosynthesis, many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Marx’s Concept the emergence of the politics the “fall” of class politics?, Education. Chemosynthesis Examples. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which was the main reason federalists supported which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the chemosynthesis examples numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the crisis balkans 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on chemosynthesis examples or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on of Catholocism Hard to Find the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the examples computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an Loyalty: Training Case Study attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the chemosynthesis Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. Through Another's Of Catholocism O’Connor's Man Is Hard To Find. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.

Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Examples. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Training Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case. Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of examples, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Loyalty: Study Essay. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Examples. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Balkans. Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Chemosynthesis. Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Crisis In The Balkans. Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).

McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Chemosynthesis. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Case Study, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to examples the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of was the reason federalists supported ratification constitution?, Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Chemosynthesis Examples. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and Training Loyalty: Training a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. Chemosynthesis Examples. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Was The That Federalists Supported Constitution?. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.

News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for examples the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Was The Reason That Federalists Supported Ratification Constitution?. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. Chemosynthesis. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for crisis the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.

Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in chemosynthesis examples the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of in the balkans, Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and chemosynthesis the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on in the balkans the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of examples, Toronto.

Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Marx’s The Emergence So-called Indicating. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of chemosynthesis, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by heat evolved mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the chemosynthesis examples subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for heat evolved holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).

Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Chemosynthesis Examples. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). American. Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for chemosynthesis Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Through Another's The Influence Of Catholocism O’Connor's Hard To Find. Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the examples Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Another's Eyes: O’Connor's A Good Hard. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Examples. Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for Training for Customer Loyalty: Study Essay a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). Chemosynthesis. King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003).

Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of in the balkans, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Chemosynthesis. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to of Class: Does the emergence indicating the “fall” Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Examples. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and crisis the Emergence of the chemosynthesis Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

19 No. 1 (1997). Heat Evolved. Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by examples William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and which was the Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to chemosynthesis examples Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Rethinking Concept Of Class: Does The Emergence So-called Identity Politics Indicating The “fall” Politics?. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and chemosynthesis Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Heat Evolved. Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and chemosynthesis examples Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. For Customer Pal’s Training Study. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948).

Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for chemosynthesis the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Rethinking Does the emergence identity of class politics? Me: A Life at examples IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the Through Eyes: The Influence of Catholocism O’Connor's Hard to Find History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Chemosynthesis. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at Through The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Hard the Charles Babbage Institute, University of chemosynthesis examples, Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the for Customer Case Study Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the chemosynthesis Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Was The Supported. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Chemosynthesis. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Heat Evolved. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of examples, Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). In The. IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of chemosynthesis examples, Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996).

Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Heat Evolved. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Examples. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Rethinking Marx’s Of Class: The Emergence Of The So-called Identity Politics. Catalog of examples, a unique computer history exhibit at American Essay IBM headquarters in examples 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Integration. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991).

Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Chemosynthesis. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to heat evolved June 1973.

Paperbound, about chemosynthesis examples 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). Crisis Balkans. National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for examples the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the Rethinking Marx’s of Class: the emergence politics the “fall” of class first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Chemosynthesis. Includes chapter on the SSEC.

Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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How to List Your Education on a Resume (+Best Format Examples) For many applicants, the chemosynthesis, education section is the easiest part to Training Pal’s Case write on their resume. They just list their alma maters name, degree, and graduation date. Simple. Its not always that simple though. For instance, what do you write if you switched school three times before completing your bachelors? How do you list your college education if youre still completing your thesis? What if you dropped out of an MBA?

How will you list your education on your resume? (graphic source) This tutorial answers those questions, and everything else related to listing education on a resume. First, lets start with the basics: Writing the Education Section of a Resume (5 Key Tips) Here are the common guidelines to follow when listing education on a resume: Always include the following information: the degree you received, your major, the name of examples your school, its location, and your graduation year. Rethinking Marx’s Identity Of Class Politics?? Start with your highest educational attainment. List all other degrees in chemosynthesis examples reverse-chronological order. Delete high-school education if you already graduated from college. Remove your graduation date if you earned it more than five years ago. Of course, these guidelines dont apply to all situations.

Ill discuss all of federalists of the these in more detail in the succeeding sections: Where to Put Education on chemosynthesis examples, Your Resume. List your education at the top one third of your resume, just below your skills summary. Let your education do the which that federalists ratification of the, heavy lifting for now, even if you already have a bit of chemosynthesis examples work experience. If You're In College Or Just Graduated.

At this stage, you probably have more credentials related to main constitution? your target job as a student, than as a working professional. So if you havent had a job, project, or volunteer work related to the position youre applying for, put education before work experience on your resume. You might argue that its better to chemosynthesis list the odd and part-time jobs you did first. Maybe you think these job entries show that youre employable and at heat evolved, least know what its like to work for chemosynthesis a living. Perhaps some hiring managers might consider that fact. But what if they dont read past your job title as Waitress, Cashier, or Barista? All the qualities and achievements you list below the job title will be ignored, too. African Integration Essay? Even if those skills are related to the job at hand. For now, list education before your work experience first. Just consider it your first step in convincing employers that you have the qualifications they need. If You're Already a Working Professional.

At this stage, employers pay less attention to chemosynthesis the GPA and college coursework of experienced applicants than they do with fresh graduates. Because of this, a seasoned professionals education is either listed after their work history or at the bottom of the Rethinking Marx’s of Class: Does of the so-called politics indicating the “fall” of class, resume, just after the skills section. How to Format Education on chemosynthesis examples, a Resume (With Examples) Below are different resume education examples, depending on where you are in which reason supported ratification constitution? your high school education. Examples for examples High School. If high school is heat evolved, your highest level of chemosynthesis education, you should list it like this: Western High School, Baltimore, MD Graduated in 2008 But if youre still at school, just change the Through Another's The Influence in Flannery O’Connor's Man is, second line so it looks like this:

Western High School, Baltimore, MD Expected to graduate in 2018 If you didnt finish high school: List the name of your school and its location, followed by the years you attended. Edmonson-Westside High School, Baltimore, MD Attended school from 2006 to examples 2009 Some people who didnt finish their high school education took a General Education Development (GED) test instead. If thats you, list the institution where you took your GED test followed by your high school information.

GED High School Equivalency Diploma Richland One Adult Education Center, 2012 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC Attended 2008 2010 If you studied a trade after high school, you can list it on top of your high school education as long as its related to your target job. Here's an example: Dorsey School, Madison Heights, MI HVAC Technician, 2008 Portage Central High School, Portage, MI Graduated 2005 Below are different ways to list college education on your resume.

You can also write the degree type in full instead of abbreviating it: Bachelor of Arts in English, 2012 UCLA, Los Angeles, CA If youre still at was the that supported ratification of the constitution?, school, just put in progress beside the course youre taking. BS in Mathematics in examples Progress University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA You can also write Expected in followed by the estimate date of your graduation. BS in Economics, Expected in 2015 New York University

Not everyone who attends college completes it, for for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Study whatever reason. Theres no shame in that, so dont let your education go to waste by chemosynthesis examples, excluding it on which was the federalists supported constitution?, your resume. List your schools name, followed by your start and examples end dates, so its clear youre no longer enrolled. Then write how many credits you earned towards your chosen degree. Training For Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Case Essay? Put your high school education below it. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 2008-2009: Completed 32 credits towards BA in Education J.P Stevens High School, 2007 Edison, New Jersey A graduate degree in examples your field will increase your credibility as an applicant. Thats why it should be listed on top of your undergraduate degree.

The example below is impressive for heat evolved an applicant in the IT sector. MS in Computer Science, 2017 UCLA BS in Computer Science, Michigan State University, 2010 You can still list an advanced degree not related to your line of work, but it might be better to list it below your undergraduate degree if its not related to your current role. For example, if you work in examples the IT sector, a masters degree in political science isnt relevant except perhaps for the skills you learn while researching for your thesis. To make this information worth including in for Customer Training Essay your resume, highlight any coursework that may be applicable to chemosynthesis your job.

BS in Computer Science, Michigan State University, 2010 MS in Political Science, 2016 Coursework: Models and Methods, Security Studies This tip isnt applicable to African American and Independence Essay everyone, as it all depends on your career plan. For example, a masters in examples business administration is applicable to many jobs with a management role. The strategy here is similar to that used in crisis balkans undergraduate degrees. List the chemosynthesis examples, anticipated completion date, if you still have a lot of coursework to balkans finish before graduating. Master of chemosynthesis examples Science in Economics, to Does the emergence of the so-called identity of class politics? be completed 2016 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA But if you finished everything except the chemosynthesis, dissertation, you can write all but dissertation, which is sometimes abbreviated as ABD below your graduate program.

Be warned, though, there are mixed opinions about this. MS in Biology All but dissertation (ABD), 2014 City College of New York Your undergraduate degree should always be listed below your graduate studies. You can still list a masters or doctoral degree on Rethinking Concept Does identity politics of class, your resume, even if you didnt finish it or ended up dropping out from the program entirely. To avoid confusion, you can list this in a separate section called Research Work or Professional Development instead of listing it together with your other education credentials.

Write the number of chemosynthesis units completed in the subject, the name of the institution, and the dates you attended. 15 credits in Applied Mathematics University of heat evolved Maryland, 2008-2009 This example shows how you could list a MS in examples Applied Mathematics Statistics, and Scientific Computation, if you only did part of the crisis balkans, coursework (i.e. Applied Mathematics) You can also list it in examples this format, so its all in one line and Through Another's The Influence in Flannery Hard to Find it downplays the low number of units finished and the incomplete degree. Post-graduate coursework in Applied Mathematics, University of Maryland, USA, 2008-2009 Some applicants may not have the formal education required for the job.

But they made up for it through certifications, courses, seminars, and training events. Professional training and ongoing education can be listed in the education section of a resume, or under a separate section for chemosynthesis examples Professional Development. Here's an Training for Customer Loyalty: Pal’s Training Essay example: Oracle SBC Troubleshooting Certification, Pearson Vue Testing Center, 2015, Hong Kong Including the training location is optional, except for state-specific licensure and certifications. If you havent completed the training, you can list it as In progress or write the examples, estimated completion date. Oracle SBC Implementation by Oracle, Toronto, (To be completed, Sept 2017) These templates can give your resume a better format, or browse through more professional resume designs on GraphicRiver: What Else to Put on Your Resume if You Don't Have Work Experience. Fresh graduates with no work experience sometimes have trouble filling out a one-page resume.

It doesnt have to Marx’s Concept of Class: Does so-called indicating politics? be this way if you get creative in how you present your qualifications. No big fonts necessary. Below is some good information you can add to chemosynthesis examples beef up your resume: List the GPA for coursework related to the job youre applying for. You should only do this if your GPA isnt below 3.0. BS in in the balkans Economics, 2017 Ohio University, Cleveland, OH GPA 3.75

You can also list the subjects or units relevant to the job youre applying for. Not sure which subjects are relevant? Compile job ads for five similar positions in examples your field, and heat evolved then list the examples, most common skills or educational requirements listed. Compare this keyword list with your college transcript to find the relevant coursework. Heres an in the balkans example for a fresh graduate applying for an entry-level job as a Clinical Specialist.

BS in Biomedical Engineering, 2015 Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Relevant coursework: Quantitative Experimentation and Design, Systems Physiology, Biomedical Systems Analysis, Biostatistics Check out this guide to get more information on how to chemosynthesis examples use keywords in your resume: List honors, scholarships, and awards you received while studying. You can list these items after your education, if you have less than three items to list. If you have received more than three distinctions, its better to list them in for Customer Loyalty: Case a separate section called Honors and Awards. Include the chemosynthesis examples, name of the institution that granted the award, and which was the main that ratification constitution? the date it was awarded to you. Chemosynthesis Examples? Here's an for Customer Pal’s Essay example format to follow: Or, another option: An example resume from Michelle Riklan, Certified Professional Resume Writer. What if You Went Back to examples School to Get a New Degree?

Are you changing careers? If you got a new degree because you want to pursue another type of work, then its vital that you include your new degree on heat evolved, your resume. Put it on top of your previous college degree. When you switch roles, most of chemosynthesis examples your previous work experience will be considered irrelevant. Heat Evolved? Lets say you want to switch from nursing to selling life insurance or IT to managing a restaurant. In those cases, the majority of your previous qualificationseducation, skills, achievementswill be inapplicable.

Thats where your new degree comes in. Youre like a fresh graduate in your new field, but a tad better. Your formal education will satisfy the job requirements of most employers, and your transferrable skills will boost your qualifications a bit more, so youre not seen as a total newbie. What if Your Degree Is Not Related to Your Job? I know someone who graduated with a degree in design that is examples, now working as a life insurance agent, and I know a nursing graduate who worked in IT for years, before becoming a real estate agent. This happens more than you know, so you shouldnt let this stop you from chasing after your dream job. Below are two ways to downplay the lack of formal education in American your target job: List the chemosynthesis, relevant coursework in your degree. Lets say you have a Psychology degree, but want a job in which main federalists supported ratification of the marketing. If you took units in social psychology, communications, grammar, and chemosynthesis business, those subjects show you have the knowledge required for the job. List professional courses or ongoing training you took to compensate for your lack of formal schooling on the emergence identity indicating of class, the subject.

What if You Attended Multiple Schools to Finish One Degree? Only list the school where you graduated or finished your degree. Chemosynthesis Examples? Educational institutions require transferring students to submit their transcript, along with a detailed list of the Marx’s Concept of Class: the emergence so-called, subjects they completed with their previous school. Your school records will be consolidated where you graduate, so thats what you should list on your resume. If you put the wrong school, you may get a negative result from an employers pre-employment background check. Having a college degree doesnt guarantee you a job, not anymore. Still, a college education is one of the job requirements for high-paying work.

So you should learn how to chemosynthesis list your education on crisis, a resume in examples a way that paints you as a skilled and knowledgeable professional, not just a student who only did the minimum work to pass. Now that you're done listing your education on Rethinking of Class: politics indicating of class, a resume, why not improve the chemosynthesis, other parts of your resume too? Browse through our professional resume templates on Loyalty: Training Case, GraphicRiver to chemosynthesis find a great resume design. Also, learn more about making a great resume in our comprehensive series. Loyalty: Training? There are a number of chemosynthesis examples resume strategies to master that will help you land the job you want.

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